Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Atmospheric circulation

The difference between the temperature of the polar and equatorial zones causes...

Structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two...

Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Ozone layer

The ozone layer filters the Sun´s harmful UV radiation, therefore it is indispensable for...

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Phase transitions

A phase transition is the transformation of a substance from one state of matter to another.

Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalised pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it...

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric...

Hexagonal metallic lattice

Metals forming hexagonal metallic lattices are rigid and difficult to machine.

Phosphorus pentoxide (P₂O₅)

A compound formed as white smoke during the combustion of phosphorus.


Fatty acid molecules consist of a polar head and a non-polar tail, therefore they are...

Nitrous acid (HNO₂)

One of the oxoacids of nitrogen. Colourless, moderate acid with a pungent odour, that...

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with...

Formation of hydrogen molecules

Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.

Reaction of ammonia with hydrogen chloride

Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

Sulphurous acid (H₂SO₃)

Colourless, moderate acid, only known in aqueous solution.

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