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Chain reaction

Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Aluminium smelting

Aluminium smelting is the process of extracting aluminium from alumina by electrolysis.

Development of the atomic model

Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.

Electron configuration of calcium

This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.

Covalent bonds in benzene molecules

In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalized pi bonds between carbon atoms.

Phase transitions

A phase transition is the transformation of a substance from one state of matter to another.

Structure of nitrogen molecules

This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two pi bonds holding the atoms together.

Atmospheric circulation

The difference between the temperature of the polar and equatorial zones causes atmospheric circulation which is affected by a number of factors, including...

Environmentally friendly vehicles

Combining a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system reduces emission.

Carbon cycle

Carbon is bound in organic substances during photosynthesis, while during breathing, it is released into the atmosphere.

Ozone layer

The ozone layer filters the Sun´s harmful UV radiation, therefore it is indispensable for life on Earth.

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Dissolution of NaCl

Common salt is dissolved by water: polar water molecules form a coat around the ions.

Addition

Addition is a reaction in which the molecules of two or more substances unite without the formation of a by-product.

Reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid

The dissolution of zinc in hydrochloric acid produces hydrogen gas.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)

Limestone is a widely and diversely used material.

Reaction of ammonia with hydrogen chloride

Ammonium chloride is the result of the reaction of ammonia and hydrogen chloride

Nitrous acid (HNO₂)

One of the oxoacids of nitrogen. Colorless, moderate acid with a pungent odor, that exists only in aqueous solution.

Phosphorus pentoxide (P₂O₅)

A compound formed as white smoke during the combustion of phosphorus.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

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