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The urinary system

The urinary system

The urinary system serves for the removal of harmful and useless materials from the body.

Biology

Keywords

excretory system, removal, urine, kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra, renal pelvis, renal pyramid, nephron, filtrate, renal medulla, cortex, kidney stone, homeostasis, human, anatomy, biology

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Scenes

  • - Their primary function is the removal of harmful materials and waste from the bloodstream. They produce about 1.5 l (0.4 gal) of urine per day.

A significant part of the energy that our body consumes is used to maintain a constant internal environment, that is, homeostasis. Our metabolism also produces harmful and excess substances which need to be eliminated to maintain homeostasis. This process is called excretion.

Excess substances include water, ions, medicine residues and metabolic waste. The urinary system, and its most important organs, the kidneys, play an important role in removing these substances. The urinary system comprises the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra. The urinary system is part of the excretory system of our bodies.

In the process of urinary excretion, the renal artery transports blood containing excess substances to the kidneys, while the renal vein carries the blood with an adjusted composition away from the kidneys. Urine, that is, the liquid that contains the substances unnecessary for the body, is transported to the bladder by the ureter.

The two bean-shaped kidneys are located in the upper abdominal cavity. The kidneys weigh 130-140 grams (4.6-4.9 ounces) on average.

The renal hilum is the recessed central fissure of the kidney where the blood vessels, the nerves and the ureter pass. On the outside, the kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule. The substance of the kidney consists of the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The renal medulla is composed of the renal pyramids, which are surrounded by the cortex. The renal pelvis, where urine produced in the renal pyramids is collected, is a flattened, funnel-like structure located at the renal hilum. This is where the ureter originates.

The structural and functional units of the kidney are the nephrons; each kidney contains about 1.2 million of them. The three main functions of the nephrons are filtration, reabsorption and active secretion.

The initial part of the nephron is the renal corpuscle, embedded in the renal cortex. The filtration of the blood takes place in the corpuscule. It consists of a glomerulus, that is, a ball-shaped network of capillaries that branch from the afferent arteriole, surrounded by a double-walled sac, called Bowman's capsule. The filtration of the blood takes place due to the large surface area of the capillaries and the high pressure in them: the filtrate passes through the wall of the capillaries and the inner wall of Bowman's capsule. The amount of filtrate entering the capsule is 180 liters (47.5 gallons) a day. The majority of this filtrate is reabsorbed from the further sections of the nephron, so only 1.5 liters (0.4 gallons) of urine is excreted from the body a in single day.

From the renal corpuscule, the filtrate flows to the proximal convoluted tubule. Here water and the majority of sodium are reabsorbed into the capillaries. Active secretion also takes place in the tubule: toxins and medicine residues that cannot pass into the filtrate in the renal corpuscle enter the nephron's tubule system here.

The next section of the nephron, the loop of Henle, is located in the renal medulla. The loop of Henle consists of a descending and an ascending limb and its function is to reduce the quantity of the filtrate. Water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the descending limb, increasing its osmotic concentration. In the ascending limb, the filtrate becomes less concentrated as sodium ions are reabsorbed from it.

The distal convoluted tubule plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Both reabsorption and active secretion take place here; these processes are regulated by hormones. The volume of blood and urine is regulated: if the total volume of blood circulating in the body decreases, hormones initiate the reabsorption of water. The reabsorption of water in turn, influences the osmotic pressure of the blood. The electrolyte composition and pH of the blood are also adjusted in the distal convoluted tubule.

The remaining fluid leaves the nephron through the collecting duct system. This is the last component of the kidney that influences the composition of urine: water is reabsorbed, and urine becomes more concentrated.

From the collecting duct system, urine drains into the renal pelvis. From here, the ureter conveys it to the bladder, where it is temporarily stored. Finally, urine is expelled from the body via the urethra.

  • - Their primary function is the removal of harmful materials and waste from the bloodstream. They produce about 1.5 l (0.4 gal) of urine per day.

  • - Their primary function is the removal of harmful materials and waste from the bloodstream. They produce about 1.5 l (0.4 gal) of urine per day.
  • - Surrounding the glomerulus, it is located at the closed end of a renal tubule. There is a pressure of 3 kPa (0.4 psi) within the capsule.
  • - A network of capillaries that branch out from the renal artery. The wall of the capillaries consists of simple epithelium and there is a pressure of 8 kPa (1.2 psi) inside it.
  • - The final adjustment of the homeostasis takes place here, which is regulated by hormones.

  • - Their primary function is the removal of harmful materials and waste from the bloodstream. They produce about 1.5 l (0.4 gal) of urine per day.
  • - Their primary function is the removal of harmful materials and waste from the bloodstream. They produce about 1.5 l (0.4 gal) of urine per day.
  • - Surrounding the glomerulus, it is located at the closed end of a renal tubule. There is a pressure of 3 kPa (0.4 psi) within the capsule.
  • - A network of capillaries that branch out from the renal artery. The wall of the capillaries consists of simple epithelium and there is a pressure of 8 kPa (1.2 psi) inside it.
  • - The final adjustment of the homeostasis takes place here, which is regulated by hormones.

Narration

A significant part of the energy that our body consumes is used to maintain a constant internal environment, that is, homeostasis. Our metabolism also produces harmful and excess substances which need to be eliminated to maintain homeostasis. This process is called excretion.

Excess substances include water, ions, medicine residues and metabolic waste. The urinary system, and its most important organs, the kidneys, play an important role in removing these substances. The urinary system comprises the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra. The urinary system is part of the excretory system of our bodies.

In the process of urinary excretion, the renal artery transports blood containing excess substances to the kidneys, while the renal vein carries the blood with an adjusted composition away from the kidneys. Urine, that is, the liquid that contains the substances unnecessary for the body, is transported to the bladder by the ureter.

The two bean-shaped kidneys are located in the upper abdominal cavity. The kidneys weigh 130-140 grams (4.6-4.9 ounces) on average.

The renal hilum is the recessed central fissure of the kidney where the blood vessels, the nerves and the ureter pass. On the outside, the kidney is surrounded by tough fibrous tissue, the renal capsule. The substance of the kidney consists of the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The renal medulla is composed of the renal pyramids, which are surrounded by the cortex. The renal pelvis, where urine produced in the renal pyramids is collected, is a flattened, funnel-like structure located at the renal hilum. This is where the ureter originates.

The structural and functional units of the kidney are the nephrons; each kidney contains about 1.2 million of them. The three main functions of the nephrons are filtration, reabsorption and active secretion.

The initial part of the nephron is the renal corpuscle, embedded in the renal cortex. The filtration of the blood takes place in the corpuscule. It consists of a glomerulus, that is, a ball-shaped network of capillaries that branch from the afferent arteriole, surrounded by a double-walled sac, called Bowman's capsule. The filtration of the blood takes place due to the large surface area of the capillaries and the high pressure in them: the filtrate passes through the wall of the capillaries and the inner wall of Bowman's capsule. The amount of filtrate entering the capsule is 180 liters (47.5 gallons) a day. The majority of this filtrate is reabsorbed from the further sections of the nephron, so only 1.5 liters (0.4 gallons) of urine is excreted from the body a in single day.

From the renal corpuscule, the filtrate flows to the proximal convoluted tubule. Here water and the majority of sodium are reabsorbed into the capillaries. Active secretion also takes place in the tubule: toxins and medicine residues that cannot pass into the filtrate in the renal corpuscle enter the nephron's tubule system here.

The next section of the nephron, the loop of Henle, is located in the renal medulla. The loop of Henle consists of a descending and an ascending limb and its function is to reduce the quantity of the filtrate. Water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the descending limb, increasing its osmotic concentration. In the ascending limb, the filtrate becomes less concentrated as sodium ions are reabsorbed from it.

The distal convoluted tubule plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. Both reabsorption and active secretion take place here; these processes are regulated by hormones. The volume of blood and urine is regulated: if the total volume of blood circulating in the body decreases, hormones initiate the reabsorption of water. The reabsorption of water in turn, influences the osmotic pressure of the blood. The electrolyte composition and pH of the blood are also adjusted in the distal convoluted tubule.

The remaining fluid leaves the nephron through the collecting duct system. This is the last component of the kidney that influences the composition of urine: water is reabsorbed, and urine becomes more concentrated.

From the collecting duct system, urine drains into the renal pelvis. From here, the ureter conveys it to the bladder, where it is temporarily stored. Finally, urine is expelled from the body via the urethra.

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