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RNA

RNA

A polynucleotid made up of phosphoric acid, ribose, and nucleobases (cytosine, uracil, adenine and guanine).

Chemistry

Keywords

RNA, RNA chain, ribonucleic acid, nucleic acid, polynucleotide, adenine, uracil, cytosine, guanine, nucleotide, messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, phosphoric acid, D-ribose, gene, biotechnology, protein, amino acid, protein synthesis, codon, anticodon, organic chemistry, chemistry, biology, biochemistry

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Scenes

Ribonucleinic acid / RNA

Properties and occurrence

RNA is a polynucleotide: it is made up of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a phosphoric acid, a ribose and an organic nucleobase containing nitrogen, which is typically cytosine, uracil, adenine and guanine, except in a few cases. RNA typically does not have a double helix structure.

The single RNA chain may bend backwards, and each chain section may form base pairs with hydrogen bonds, thus forming a double structure on certain parts of the chain.

The best known types of RNA are mRNA, tRNA and rRNA, which play an important role in protein synthesis within cells. Other RNA molecules regulate the expression of genes while certain RNA molecules act as enzymes, or biological catalysts. These are called ribozymes.

Uses

RNA is used in research, biotechnology, and molecular medicine.

Related items

Beta-D-ribose (C₅H₁₀O₅)

A crystalline compound found in nucleic acids, coenzymes, nucleotides and nucleosides.

DNA

Carrier of genetic information in cells.

Genome editing

Genome editing is a type of genetical engineering which results in changes in the genome of a living organism. This animation introduces one of the best...

Phosphate ion (PO₄³⁻)

A compound ion formed when a phosphoric acid molecule releases a proton.

Phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄)

It is also used as a food additive, limescale and rust remover.

Purine (C₅H₄N₄)

A heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, its derivatives include guanine and adenine.

Pyrimidine (C₄H₄N₂)

A heterocyclic organic compound, its derivatives are thymine, cytosine and uracil.

Viruses

Viruses consist of protein and DNA or RNA, they reprogram infected cells to produce more viruses.

D-ribose (C₅H₁₀O₅)

The open-chain version of ribose, which occurs naturally in nucleic acids, coenzymes, nucleotides and nucleosides.

Polymerization of ethene

Polymerized ethylene is known as polyethylene, a type of plastic.

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