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Paleolithic cave

Paleolithic cave

The first dwellings in human history provide a lot of information about the lifestyle of our ancestors.

History

Keywords

prehistory, prehistoric man, cave, cave drawing, Altamira, Lascaux, archeology, horde, community, place of residence, natural crevice, dwelling, hut, anthropology, feeding, fire, making fire, tool use, control of fire, toolmaking, history, lifestyle, blood relation, device, human

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Questions

  • Which of the following is the earliest archaeological age?
  • What is the first period within the Stone Age?
  • Which of the following was NOT a typical dwelling of Palaeolithic people?
  • Which of the following was NOT a typical raw material of Palaeolithic tools?
  • Which of the following was NOT used by Palaeolithic men as weapon?
  • Which word of Greek origin means 'scientific study of humans'?
  • Which of the following was NOT a typical form of acquiring food of Palaeolithical people?
  • Which was the first human sepcies whose diet included meat?
  • What is the name of Palaeolithic people's community?
  • Which of the following is NOT depicted on cave paintings?
  • The proximity of what did NOT play an important role when it came to choosing the dwelling of Palaeolithic people?
  • Which colour is NOT typical of Palaeolithic cave paintings?
  • Is it true that Palaeolithic people led a hunting-fishing-gathering lifestyle?
  • Is it true that most of the cave paintings were painted on the wall next to the entrance?
  • Which statement is NOT true about hordes?
  • Which of the following was the most important activity of Palaeolithic people?
  • Which animal could NOT be seen by Palaeolithic people?
  • The following description refers to which tool? A chipped stone tool used for cleaning animal hides.
  • The following description refers to which tool? A teardrop-shaped tool shaped by chipping off pieces from a large pebble or piece of rock.
  • Which technique was used to make Palaeolithic tools?
  • Which of the following CANNOT be considered as one of the advantages of fire?
  • What feature of Palaeolithic people helps the most the work of today's archaeologists?

Scenes

Tools

  • Paleolithic tools
  • hand axe - A teardrop-shaped tool formed by chipping off pieces from a large pebble or piece of rock. It was an universally used tool.
  • scraper - A chipped stone tool used for cleaning animal hides.
  • arrowhead - Chipped stone arrowheads were fastened to the shafts with animal sinew or plant fibre.
  • needle - Made of bone, they were used to make clothes and punch holes in leather.

The history of mankind can be divided into archeological periods, based on the material of the tools typically used by people of the periods and the technique used for making them.

In contrast to historical periods, archaeological periods usually do not have clear boundaries and can even vary by region. The overview of the evolution of certain tools can also paint a true picture of the evolution of mankind.

The earliest archaeological period was the Stone Age. At this time, the primary raw material for making tools was stone. Besides stone, bones and wood were also used. The first period of the Stone Age was the Paleolithic, when stone tools were usually made by lithic reduction (chipping).

Animation

Paleolithic cave

Prehistoric dwellings

As archeologists initially found the traces of prehistoric people mostly in caves, they presumed this was the only existing type of dwellings in prehistoric times. However, modern research methods and devices proved this assumption wrong.
There were three types of dwellings used by prehistoric people. Besides caves, formed in the natural crevices of rock, people also made their homes under overhanging cliffs. If they could not find cliffs, they built huts from branches or large bones covered with animal hide.

The dwellings were usually set up near forests (building material) and sources of water (springs, brooks).

Outside

As it was initially in caves first and foremost that archeologists had found the traces of prehistoric people, they presumed this was the only existing type of dwelling in prehistoric times. However, modern research methods and devices have proved this assumption wrong.

There were three types of dwellings used by prehistoric people. Besides caves formed in the natural crevices of rock, they also made their homes under overhanging cliffs. If they could not find cliffs, they built huts from branches or large bones covered with animal hide.

The dwellings were usually placed near forests, important for the building material they provided, and sources of water, such as springs and brooks.

View from inside

  • scraper - A chipped stone tool used for cleaning animal hides.
  • arrows - By using bows and arrows, prehistoric men could hunt fast-moving animals too.
  • animal hide - Prehistoric people made use of almost every part of the carcass of their prey. From the cleaned and dried animal hide, they made mainly clothes, footwear and blankets.
  • bow - By using bows and arrows, prehistoric men could hunt fast-moving animals too.

On sites inhabited by prehistoric man, archaeologists and anthropologists have found numerous artefacts. Discarded trash, such as animal bones and unusable weapons and tools, as well as human remains were often collected in thick layers or heaps inside and next to caves.

The main activity of prehistoric man was the acquisition of food. Our ancestors led a hunting-fishing-gathering lifestyle. Initially, they only gathered plants and fruits. Homo Erectus was the earliest hunter, thus their diet included meat besides plants, fish, snails and shellfish.

Initially, prehistoric man only used fire found in nature, later they developed techniques to make and control fire. Fire provided warmth and light, it made meat more palatable and it kept animals away.

Prehistoric man lived in small communities or hordes. Living alone they would have almost no chance of survival. Members of hordes were also connected by kinship. They took care of each other.

Cave paintings

  • sabre-toothed cat
  • woolly mammoth

Cave paintings and drawings represent a separate group of archeological artefacts, which still pose a great many questions for archaeologists. The paintings usually depict animals and humans hunting and were painted on the walls and ceilings of caves. Today there are about 200 caves known to contain such paintings. The best known are the Cave of Altamira in Spain and the Lascaux Caves in France.

Walk

Narration

As it was initially in caves first and foremost that archeologists had found the traces of prehistoric people, they presumed this was the only existing type of dwelling in prehistoric times. However, modern research methods and devices have proved this assumption wrong.

There were three types of dwellings used by prehistoric people. Besides caves formed in the natural crevices of rock, they also made their homes under overhanging cliffs. If they could not find cliffs, they built huts from branches or large bones covered with animal hide. The dwellings were usually placed near forests (important for the building material they provided) and sources of water (such as springs and brooks).

On sites inhabited by prehistoric man, archeologists and anthropologists have found numerous artifacts. Discarded trash, such as animal bones and unusable weapons and tools, as well as human remains were often collected in thick layers or heaps inside and next to caves.

Cave paintings and drawings represent a separate group of archeological artifacts, which still pose a great many questions for archeologists. The paintings usually depict animals and humans hunting and were painted on the walls and ceilings of caves. Today there are about 200 caves known to contain such paintings. The best known are the Cave of Altamira in Spain and the Lascaux Caves in France.

Initially, prehistoric man only used fire found in nature, later they developed techniques to make and control fire. Fire provided warmth and light, it made meat more palatable and it kept animals away.
Prehistoric man lived in small communities or hordes. Living alone they would have almost no chance of survival. Members of hordes were also connected by kinship. They took care of each other.

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