A long pipe in the center of the tower penetrates the ocean bed until it reaches the layer that contains oil.
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Crude oil reserves hidden beneath the sea are mostly extracted by oil platforms. These are floating islands built for oil extraction. In shallow water, the islands are built on long concrete and steel legs. In deeper water the platforms are anchored to the ocean floor by steel cables. The most important part of oil platforms is the well. A very long pipe in the center of the tower (derrick) penetrates the ocean bed until it reaches the layer that contains oil. A drill bitcuts the way for the pipe, its rotation chops a hole down in the rock. The oil stored in the gaps of rock and areas between particles is pumped up to the surface, then it is carried by very long pipes to the oil tanks on the shore.
- Crude oil and natural gas formed when large quantities of such organisms, mainly algae, died of unfavorable conditions and got buried underneath the seabed. Over millions of years, these sedimentary layers sank thousands of meters deep. Isolated from oxygen, they turned into crude oil and natural gas because of the combination of high temperature and pressure.