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Farm (Hungary, 19th century)

Farm (Hungary, 19th century)

Small farms usually located near the border of rural towns, inhabited by peasants.

History

Keywords

farm, agriculture, yard, garden, orchard, straw, pigsty, stable, shed, vineyard, counterpoise lift, porch, peasant, animal husbandry, house

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Narration

Farms in Hungary were usually located near the edge of rural towns or villages, inhabited by peasants. Farms were small, they consisted of a house with a few agricultural buildings. The first Hungarian farms were probably established in the 15th century, but they appeared in large numbers in the 18th century.

The typical farming lifestyle required a special arrangement of structural elements.

Farms were sometimes surrounded by a fence. The most important building on the property was the family’s living quarters, which typically consisted of a bedroom, a kitchen and a pantry. Besides the pantry, the attic was also used for storage.

The center of everyday life, however, was not the house, but the farm yard. Buildings and structures for holding livestock or storing crops were here: pigsties, pens, stables, corn cages and barns. There was usually a well, surrounded by troughs for animals. Bales of straw, pigeon lofts, milk jugs being dried on trees, piles of manure and outdoor lavatories all added to the special atmosphere of the farms.

There was often a vineyard and an orchard next to the yard. The fields beyond the fence were used for livestock and agricultural cultivation. This is where the family spent most of their days.

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Life on the farm (Hungary)

Farming consists of special agricultural activities.

Types of farms and villages

The structure and density of farms and villages depend on the geographical features of the region.

Farming techniques

Farming techniques evolved with the development of human civilization in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

Hungarian settlements of the Arpad era

Pit houses were typical dwellings in the Arpad era.

Isolated settlement (forester´s house)

Foresters adjusted their lifestyle to the forest environment.

Location of origin of livestock and crops

Domesticated animals and crops originate from various parts of the world.

Log house

Log houses were a typical type of dwellings in Hungary in the Árpád era.

Single street village with ’strip parcels’

Villages established in valleys usually consisted of houses built on long and narrow plots of land.

Market town (Kingdom of Hungary)

Market towns became the most common type of towns in the Kingdom of Hungary by the Late Middle Ages.

Public school in Central Europe (early 20th century)

Public schools in villages played an important role in education.

Typical dwelling types

Every era and every culture has specific residential buildings.

Typical flat in Hungary in the 1980s

Typical flats characterise the culture of the decade.

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