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Major phases in the history of theories and views about the structure of the atom.
atomic model, Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, nucleus, electron cloud, atomic structure, proton, electron, neutron, elementary particles, atomos, excitation, spectrum, quantum mechanics, chemistry
According to Democritus and his master, Leucippus, matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. According to their model, atoms exist eternally: they are neither destroyed, nor produced; they can be different in size and shape, and they might be connected through small hooks.
The peculiarities of atoms define the characteristics of different materials. For example, the roundish atoms with hooks shown in the animation have a bitter taste and they are sticky. Sweet materials are small and round. Therefore, they are able to infiltrate different materials, changing their taste.
Today we know that this naive atomic model is not correct; however, this theory is important in the history of science, because it marked the birth, in the 4th-5th centuries B.C., of the notion of the non-continuous, quantized nature of matter.
In benzene there are sigma bonds and delocalized pi bonds between carbon atoms.
This animation shows the electron configuration of the calcium atom.
Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.
This animation demonstrates the structure of nitrogen molecules, with one sigma and two pi bonds holding the atoms together.
Matter is made up by quarks and leptons, while interactions are carried by bosons.
An exercise about different types of bonds.
This animation explains transparency and opacity, the principle of radiography, and the light-absorbing properties of materials.
Energy released during nuclear fission can be used for civilian or military purposes.
This animation demonstrates the structure and operation of electron microscopes.
Marie Curie, the only person to win the Nobel Prize in two different sciences, is probably the most famous woman in the history of science.
These great scientists had a tremendous impact on the advancement in physics.
The process of the decay of unstable nuclei is called radioactivity.
A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.
This animation introduces the studies of astronomers and physicists whose works fundamentally changed our view of the universe.
The Rutherford Experiment proved the existence of positively charged atomic nuclei. The results led to the elaboration of a new atomic model.
The animation shows the way forces act on wheeled vehicles and vehicles with runners.