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Boeing 747 (1969)

Boeing 747 (1969)

The Jumbo Jet is one of the best known airliners.



Boeing, airplane, passenger carrier, aviation, jet engine, engine, elevator, rudder, flap, transportation, technology

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Jumbo Jet

The Boeing 747 was the first wide-body commercial airliner.

The airplane, developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes, is one of the best known aircraft in the world.

Several version of the Jumbo Jet have been manufactured; it is available in passenger, freighter and other versions (including military). It made its maiden flight in February 1969 and entered service in 1970, used by Pan American and TWA. By May 2013, more than 1,500 aircraft had been delivered.

It has an excellent lift-to-drag ratio and is extremely safe. So far only 49 hull-loss accidents occurred.

Today Boeing 747 airplanes are used by Singapore Airlines, Japan Airlines and British Airways. The most widely used type is 747-400, its success story is continued by the latest model, the 747-8, introduced in 2010.


The Boeing 747-400 is the most successful model of the Boeing 747 family of jet airliners. It is the oldest model and best-selling model still manufactured. It held several records (e.g. passenger capacity) until 2007, when the Airbus 380 was introduced.

The model includes several improvements: redesigned and enlarged wings, new engines, cabin and fuel tank (in the back of the fuselage). It is also easier to control (the number of switches in the cockpit has been reduced from 971 to 305, and two-member cockpit crew was sufficient instead of three).

The length of the 400ER model is about 71 m (232.9 ft), with a wingspan of 65 m (213.3 ft) and a height of 20 m (65.62 ft). The wing surface area is 541 m² (5,823 sq ft) and the empty weight is about 181 tonnes. Its maximum range is 14,200 km (8,823 mi).

The 747-400 is the best known model, the newest type is 747-8, introduced in 2010.

Jet engine

The basic principle of turbojet engines is the thrust generated by a high-speed jet of gas.
The air enters the rotating compressors through the air inlet. The blades of the compressor compress the air, increasing its speed. This compressed air ensures the continuous combustion of the injected fuel. The combustion increases the pressure and temperature of the mixture of air and combustion products.

This gas mixture flows through the nozzle, a pipe with a progressively smaller cross section, resulting in an increasing speed of flow. Then the gas flows out through the nozzle and, in accordance with Newton’ s 3rd Law (the law of action-reaction), it generates a thrust.

The first jet engines appeared in the 1940s but the appearance of the Boeing 747, TU-144 and Concorde in the 1960s meant a real breakthrough.

The immense mass of the Boeing 747-400ER is propelled by 4 General Electric CF6-80 turbojet engines (placed on the wings), each with a 274 kN (61,597.7 lbf) thrust. The maximum speed of the aircraft (998 km/h or 620.1 mph) is just below the speed of sound.

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