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Animal and plant cells, cellular organelles

Animal and plant cells, cellular organelles

Eukaryotic cells contain a number of organelles.

Biology

Keywords

cell, cell organelle, cellular organelles, eucaryotic, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, chloroplast, endoplasmic, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton, vacuole, DNA, thylakoid, plant cell wall, vesicle, granum, extracellular matrix, sclerocyte, chromatin, histone proteins, lipid membrane, nuclear membrane, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, RER, ribosome, organism, cytology, plant, animal, biology, _javasolt

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Questions

  • Which of the groups below are NOT Eukaryotes?
  • Which organelle is the cell's powerhouse?
  • Which one of the following organelles is NOT present in animal cells?
  • Which one of the following organelles is NOT present in animal cells?
  • Which one of the following organelles is NOT present in animal cells?
  • Which organelle is a complex, interconnected network of membrane vesicles in the cell and plays an important role in protein synthesis?
  • Which organelle is responsible for carrying out photosynthesis?
  • Where does the digestion of unwanted materials take place?
  • Which organelle contains chromatin?
  • Where do catabolic processes take place?
  • Is it true that cell membrane is a single-layer membrane consisting of starch molecules?
  • Is it true that chloroplasts are enclosed in a double membrane?
  • Is it true that the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes?
  • Is it true that prokaryote cells have nuclei?
  • Is it true that every animal cell is enclosed in a cell wall made of cellulose?
  • Is it true that the vacuole plays an important role in maintaining turgor pressure within the plant cell?
  • Is it true that the cytoskeleton ensures the positioning and the movement of organelles within the cell?
  • Is it true that mitochondria take part in the processes of anabolism?
  • Which substance forms the cell walls of plants?
  • What type of molecules form the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane?

Scenes

Cell

  • animal cell
  • plant cell
  • chloroplast - Photosynthesis takes place in it: the production of sugar from carbon dioxide, with the help of solar energy.
  • cell wall - It is composed of cellulose and serves to provide defense, maintain the cellular shape and make plant tissues firm.
  • vacuole - A bubble within the cell, filled with nuclear sap. It plays an important role in maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell, in storing minerals and removing waste.
  • nucleus - It is made up by chromatin, a combination of DNA and proteins. The cells of animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes, that is, they have nuclei. Prokaryote cells (bacteria) do not have nuclei, their DNA is found in the cytoplasm.
  • mitochondrion - The cell´s power station: it produces ATP by breaking down organic molecules. ATP is the molecule of the energy transfer of cells.
  • cell membrane - A lipid membrane that encloses the cell.
  • cytoplasm - A transparent liquid. It is the site of various metabolic processes in the cell.
  • endoplasmic reticulum - A complex, interconnected network of membrane vesicles in the cell. It plays an important role in protein synthesis, protein processing, lipid synthesis and the breakdown of certain materials.
  • Golgi apparatus - It plays an important role in processing proteins.

Animal cell

  • nucleus - It is made up by chromatin, a combination of DNA and proteins. The cells of animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes, that is, they have nuclei. Prokaryote cells (bacteria) do not have nuclei, their DNA is found in the cytoplasm.
  • mitochondrion - The cell´s power station: it produces ATP by breaking down organic molecules. ATP is the molecule of the energy transfer of cells.
  • cell membrane - A lipid membrane that encloses the cell.
  • cytoplasm - A transparent liquid; the site of various metabolic processes in the cell.
  • endoplasmic reticulum - A complex, interconnected network of membrane vesicles in the cell. It plays an important role in protein synthesis, protein processing, lipid synthesis and the breakdown of certain materials.
  • Golgi apparatus - It plays an important role in processing proteins.
  • vesicle - Materials within the cell are transported in membrane bubbles. One type of vesicles are lysosomes, in which certain materials are digested and waste is broken down.
  • cytoskeleton - It plays important roles in the positioning and movement of vesicles and organelles, and provides animal cells - which do not have cell walls - with structure and shape.

Plant cell

  • chloroplast - Photosynthesis takes place in it: the production of sugar from carbon dioxide, with the help of solar energy.
  • cell wall - It is composed of cellulose and serves to provide defense, maintain the cellular shape and make plant tissues firm.
  • vacuole - A bubble within the cell, filled with nuclear sap. It plays an important role in maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell, in storing minerals and removing waste.
  • nucleus - It is made up by chromatin, a combination of DNA and proteins. The cells of animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes, that is, they have nuclei. Prokaryote cells (bacteria) do not have nuclei, their DNA is found in the cytoplasm.
  • mitochondrion - The cell´s power station: it produces ATP by breaking down organic molecules. ATP is the molecule of the energy transfer of cells.
  • cell membrane - A lipid membrane that encloses the cell.
  • cytoplasm - A transparent liquid; the site of various metabolic processes in the cell.
  • endoplasmic reticulum - A complex, interconnected network of membrane vesicles in the cell. It plays an important role in protein synthesis, protein processing, lipid synthesis and the breakdown of certain materials.
  • Golgi apparatus - It plays an important role in processing proteins.
  • vesicle - Materials within the cell are transported in membrane bubbles. One type of vesicles are lysosomes, in which certain materials are digested and waste is broken down.
  • cytoskeleton - It plays important roles in the positioning and movement of vesicles and organelles, and provides animal cells - which do not have cell walls - with structure and shape.

Cell membrane

  • phosphatide molecule - A lipid molecule; its head consists of a glycerol and a phosphoric acid, the tail consists of two fatty acid chains. The head is polar, while the tail is non-polar; thus the phosphatide (or phospholipid) molecule is amphipatic and they tend to form double layers. Within a layer the phospatide molecules can move freely but they rarely leave the layer, therefore the lipid membrane is a two-dimensional liquid.
  • membrane protein - Certain proteins form channels through the membrane, while others may play important roles in transmitting chemical signals between the two sides of the membrane.

Nucleus

  • nucleolus
  • chromatin - It is made up by proteins and DNA coiled up on them. DNA determines the genetic properties of the cell and the organism built up by these cells.
  • nuclear membrane - A double membrane, the outer layer is the continuation of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • pore - A protein complex through which materials are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.

Nuclear membrane

  • pore-forming proteins - A protein complex through which materials are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
  • outer lipid membrane - It is the continuation of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • inner lipid membrane

Endoplasmic reticulum

  • rough endoplasmic reticulum - It contains ribosomes, which synthesise protein molecules.
  • smooth endoplasmic reticulum - It plays an important role in lipid synthesis and detoxication: certain harmful materials are broken down here.
  • ribosome - It synthesizes protein molecules in the order specified by the DNA, which is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules in the nucleus. Membrane-bound ribosomes are located on the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and produce proteins to be used outside the cell or to be built into the cell membrane. Free ribosomes can move freely in the cytoplasm, they produce proteins to be used within the cell.
  • nuclear membrane - A double membrane, the outer layer is the continuation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

Golgi apparatus

  • cis face - The part of the Golgi apparatus nearer to the nucleus.
  • trans face - The part of the Golgi apparatus farther from the nucleus. While passing through the Golgi apparatus, proteins are processed and packed. It also plays an important role in determining the final destination of the protein. Proteins are transported from the cis face to the trans face by vesicles.

Plastid

  • outer membrane
  • inner membrane
  • granum - It is a a membrane structure, a stack of thylakoid disks.
  • thylakoid - They are formed by the invagination (folding-in) of the inner membrane. They contain protein complexes which play an important role in photosynthesis.

Mitochondrion

  • outer membrane
  • inner membrane - It contains molecules that play an important role in catabolic processes and in the production of ATP.

Chromatin

  • protein skeleton
  • histone proteins
  • DNA - It is the genetic material of cells, it determines the genetic properties of the cell and the organism built up by these cells.

Animation

  • animal cell
  • plant cell
  • chloroplast - Photosynthesis takes place in it: the production of sugar from carbon dioxide, with the help of solar energy.
  • cell wall - It is composed of cellulose and serves to provide defense, maintain the cellular shape and make plant tissues firm.
  • vacuole - A bubble within the cell, filled with nuclear sap. It plays an important role in maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell, in storing minerals and removing waste.
  • nucleus - It is made up by chromatin, a combination of DNA and proteins. The cells of animals, plants and fungi are eukaryotes, that is, they have nuclei. Prokaryote cells (bacteria) do not have nuclei, their DNA is found in the cytoplasm.
  • mitochondrion - The cell´s power station: it produces ATP by breaking down organic molecules. ATP is the molecule of the energy transfer of cells.
  • cell membrane - A lipid membrane that encloses the cell.
  • cytoplasm - A transparent liquid. It is the site of various metabolic processes in the cell.
  • endoplasmic reticulum - A complex, interconnected network of membrane vesicles in the cell. It plays an important role in protein synthesis, protein processing, lipid synthesis and the breakdown of certain materials.
  • Golgi apparatus - It plays an important role in processing proteins.
  • nucleolus
  • chromatin - It is made up by proteins and DNA coiled up on them. DNA determines the genetic properties of the cell and the organism built up by these cells.
  • nuclear membrane - A double membrane, the outer layer is the continuation of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • pore - A protein complex through which materials are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
  • protein skeleton
  • histone proteins
  • DNA - It is the genetic material of cells, it determines the genetic properties of the cell and the organism built up by these cells.
  • pore-forming proteins - A protein complex through which materials are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
  • outer lipid membrane - It is the continuation of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • inner lipid membrane
  • rough endoplasmic reticulum - It contains ribosomes, which synthesise protein molecules.
  • smooth endoplasmic reticulum - It plays an important role in lipid synthesis and detoxication: certain harmful materials are broken down here.
  • ribosome - It synthesizes protein molecules in the order specified by the DNA, which is copied into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules in the nucleus. Membrane-bound ribosomes are located on the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and produce proteins to be used outside the cell or to be built into the cell membrane. Free ribosomes can move freely in the cytoplasm, they produce proteins to be used within the cell.
  • nuclear membrane - A double membrane, the outer layer is the continuation of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • cis face - The part of the Golgi apparatus nearer to the nucleus.
  • trans face - The part of the Golgi apparatus farther from the nucleus. While passing through the Golgi apparatus, proteins are processed and packed. It also plays an important role in determining the final destination of the protein. Proteins are transported from the cis face to the trans face by vesicles.
  • phosphatide molecule - A lipid molecule; its head consists of a glycerol and a phosphoric acid, the tail consists of two fatty acid chains. The head is polar, while the tail is non-polar; thus the phosphatide (or phospholipid) molecule is amphipatic and they tend to form double layers. Within a layer the phospatide molecules can move freely but they rarely leave the layer, therefore the lipid membrane is a two-dimensional liquid.
  • membrane protein - Certain proteins form channels through the membrane, while others may play important roles in transmitting chemical signals between the two sides of the membrane.
  • outer membrane
  • inner membrane
  • granum - It is a a membrane structure, a stack of thylakoid disks.
  • thylakoid - They are formed by the invagination (folding-in) of the inner membrane. They contain protein complexes which play an important role in photosynthesis.
  • outer membrane
  • inner membrane - It contains molecules that play an important role in catabolic processes and in the production of ATP.

Narration

The two important types of eukaryotic cells are animal and plant cells.
Vascular plants are built up of organs, such as leaves. Organs consist of tissues, while tissues in turn consist of cells with similar structures and functions. This animation shows a mesophyll cell. These cells are typically found in leaves and carry out intensive photosynthesis.

Eumetazoans are animals that are built up of organs and tissues. This group includes humans. This animation shows a human liver cell.

Typical plant and animal cells exhibit a number of similar features and a number of divergent ones. Both types of cells have nuclei, endoplasmic reticula, that is, a complex network of membrane vesicles, and Golgi apparatuses. They contain cytoskeletons and cytoplasm, which is enclosed by the cell membrane. The cell membrane in plant cells is enclosed in a cell wall, made of cellulose. Plant cells commonly contain both a vacuole (which is a bubble within the cell, filled with nuclear sap) and photosynthesizing chloroplasts.

The nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear membrane. It contains the nucleolus, where ribosomes are produced. The content of the nucleus is made up mostly of chromatin.

Chromatin consists of DNA coiled onto histone proteins. DNA encodes proteins. Thus it is responsible for the properties of cells and the entire organism.

The nuclear membrane is a double lipid membrane. It contains pores, which are made up of pore-forming membrane proteins through which materials are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.

The endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the outer layer of the nuclear membrane. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is nearer to the nucleus. Its surface contains ribosomes, which synthesize protein molecules in the order specified by the DNA, which is copied into messenger RNA molecules in the nucleus. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays an important role in lipid synthesis and detoxification: it breaks down certain harmful materials.

The proteins produced by the ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are processed and packed in the Golgi apparatus. It also plays an important role in determining the final destination of the protein.

The cell membrane is made up of phosphatide molecules. The head of a phosphatide molecule is polar, thus hydrophilic, while the tail is non-polar, thus hydrophobic. The hydrophobic parts turn towards each other and push out the water, forming a double layer. Within a layer the phosphatide molecules can freely move but they rarely leave the layer, therefore the lipid membrane is a two-dimensional liquid. Membrane proteins in the cell membrane may have several functions: some of them serve as channels, while others function as receptors, which bind signal molecules.

Chloroplasts are important organelles in plant cells; they carry out photosynthesis. They have a double membrane; the folds of the inner membrane form thylakoid disks. These disks are often stacked, forming grana.

Both plant and animal cells contain mitochondria. These are often considered the cells' power station: they produce a large amount of ATP by breaking down organic molecules. ATP is the molecule that carries out energy transfer in cells.

Living organisms are characterized by cellular organization. Cells are the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and are often called the building blocks of life. Cells engage in biological processes but cell organelles themselves are not living things.

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