The Jovian planets

The four outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus) do not have solid surfaces, thus they are called gas giants.

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Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

Tropical cyclones

Cyclones are large areas of swirling air with clouds and precipitation being formed inside.

Karst region (intermediate)

Karst formations include dolines and dripstones.

Fascinating atmospheric phenomena

We can often observe spectacular atmospheric phenomena. Let's see how some of these are formed.

The desert

One third of the continents is covered with desert. Today, desertification is a growing problem.

The work of glaciers

A glacier is a large body of ice in constant, slow motion down a hillside.

Factors of warming

The duration of solar radiation, the angle of the Sun's rays and the surface albedo all have an...


A lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge accompanied by a sound known as thunder.

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