Exogenic forces

The surface of the Earth has been formed into its present state both by external and internal forces. External forces shape the surface from the outside; hence, the name.

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The circumference of the Earth has already been calculated in ancient Egypt. The calculations...

Faulting (intermediate)

Vertical forces can break up layers of rock into fault blocks, which then move vertically along...

Fascinating atmospheric phenomena

We can often observe spectacular atmospheric phenomena. Let's see how some of these are formed.

Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics is a theory dealing with the movement of plates.

Local winds

The most important types of local winds are the sea-land breeze, the mountain-valley breeze as...


Waves play an important role in forming the coast.

The Jovian planets

The four outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus) do not have solid surfaces, thus...

Underground waters

Groundwater and aquifers are types of underground waters.

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