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Underground waters

Underground waters

Groundwater and aquifers are types of underground waters.

Geography

Keywords

underground water, aquifer, fissured aquifer, groundwater, artesian water, karst water, impermeable layer, permeable layer, karst area, karst spring, drinking water, karst, cave, precipitation, agriculture, groundwater flooding, water cycle, well, boiling, stream, river, hydrography, nature, hydrosphere, water, geography

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Scenes

Confined aquifer

  • groundwater - Water found above the topmost impermeable layer.
  • impermeable layer (aquiclude) - A layer of rock with low permeation capacity.
  • confined aquifer - An underground layer of water found below and between impermeable layers (aquicludes).
  • artesian well - Water collected in a confined aquifer under positive pressure may rise though the surface by itself, or wells may be drilled in order to access it.
  • 80 m
  • soil moisture - Water that coats soil particles in the soil layer above the water table. It fills the pores found between soil particles only partially. It is a non-contiguous layer.

Fissured aquifer

  • fissured aquifer - Water that accumulates in the fractures of rock.

Groundwater

  • groundwater - Water found above the topmost impermeable layer.
  • groundwater well
  • 20 m
  • river - A natural watercourse flowing in an inclined stream bed.
  • bank-filtered water - Water occurring next to surface waters. The water of the river is filtered by the layers of pebbles and sand on the river bank.

Animation

  • fissured aquifer - Water that accumulates in the fractures of rock.
  • groundwater - Water found above the topmost impermeable layer.
  • impermeable layer (aquiclude) - A layer of rock with low permeation capacity.
  • confined aquifer - An underground layer of water found below and between impermeable layers (aquicludes).
  • river - A natural watercourse flowing in an inclined stream bed.
  • spring - The place where underground water flows from to the surface.
  • 150 m
  • groundwater flooding - After high rainfall, the groundwater may rise so much that it fills the deeper areas of the surface.
  • groundwater - Water found above the topmost impermeable layer.
  • impermeable layer (aquiclude) - A layer of rock with low permeation capacity.
  • confined aquifer - An underground layer of water found below and between impermeable layers (aquicludes).
  • artesian well - Water collected in a confined aquifer under positive pressure may rise though the surface by itself, or wells may be drilled in order to access it.
  • 80 m
  • soil moisture - Water that coats soil particles in the soil layer above the water table. It fills the pores found between soil particles only partially. It is a non-contiguous layer.
  • groundwater - Water found above the topmost impermeable layer.
  • groundwater well
  • 20 m
  • river - A natural watercourse flowing in an inclined stream bed.
  • bank-filtered water - Water occurring next to surface waters. The water of the river is filtered by the layers of pebbles and sand on the river bank.

Underground waters

  • fissured aquifer - Water that accumulates in the fractures of rock.
  • groundwater - Water found above the topmost impermeable layer.
  • impermeable layer (aquiclude) - A layer of rock with low permeation capacity.
  • confined aquifer - An underground layer of water found below and between impermeable layers (aquicludes).
  • river - A natural watercourse flowing in an inclined stream bed.
  • spring - The place where underground water flows from to the surface.
  • 150 m
  • groundwater flooding - After high rainfall, the groundwater may rise so much that it fills the deeper areas of the surface.

Narration

Groundwater is the water located beneath the Earth's surface and is in direct contact with the soil. Much of our water supply is under the surface. These waters are used as sources of drinking water or for irrigation in agriculture.

The impermeable layer is a layer of rock with low permeation capacity, so it does not allow water to pass through. The water found between the surface and the impermeable layer is called groundwater, while water under the impermeable layer is called an aquifer.

Groundwater is found above the topmost impermeable layer, where water accumulates via run-off and seepage. It is located at a depth of 2–5 m on average.
The groundwater level depends on the weather and it directly affects agriculture.
After high rainfall, the groundwater may rise so much that it fills the deeper areas of the surface. This is called groundwater flooding.
In the event of low rainfall, the groundwater level drops. Toxic substances may infiltrate from the surface into the groundwater, so it is not suitable for human consumption. The underground flow of groundwater may transport these substances a long distance, so it is extremely important to protect groundwater.

Confined aquifers are located below and between impermeable layers. They make up most of the groundwaters. Confined aquifers are a main source of drinking water, as they are not polluted easily. However, they replenish themselves more slowly.

An artesian aquifer is an aquifer between two impermeable layers containing water under positive pressure. This typically occurs in basins. When an artesian well is made, the upper impermeable layer is drilled through and the water rises through the hole due to the natural pressure.

In karst areas, the source of karst water is the water seeping through fractures in the rock.

Bank-filtered waters occur next to surface waters. Here the water of the river is filtered by the layers of pebbles and sand on the river bank.

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