The structure and density of farms and villages depend on the geographical features of the region.
farm, village, settlement, scattered settlement, szórt tanya, sortanya, cluster village, szalagtelkes falu, linear village, grid village, agriculture, crop production, animal husbandry, geography
Types of farms and villages
village with ´strip parcels´
In Hungary, farmsteads evolved at the end of the 18th century, when the crop production squeezed outgrazing livestock farming from the plains. To work the fields situated far away from the villages, peasants would have had to walk 10-20 km to and fro every day. This would have been tiring and inefficient. Therefore, farmsteads were established on the outskirts that also served as accommodation during the busiest time of the year for farmers. At that stage, farmsteads were not yet inhabited throughout the entire year. Farmsteads became a permanent place to live for families only when sheltered accommodation for animals replaced grazing. The relative position of farmsteads was determined by geographical conditions and the farming system.
-farmsteads are isolated, dispersed settlements when nothing stands in their way
-farmsteads are aligned, they are situated along a road for easier communication with the village
-farmsteads are clustered in an elliptical shape, with a common area in the centre when defence and interdependence require a close proximity of the families.
The layout of villages preserves the memory of past centuries.
-cluster village: a village that developed over a long period of time unobstructed. This type of village is characterised by irregular parcels and a network of irregular streets.
-village with ´strip parcels´: situated in places where forests and swamps prevented the expansion of settlements. The houses are built close to each other on the periphery of a forest or a swamp. This type of village got its name for the narrow, long parcels stretching behind the houses.
-single-street village: its houses are arranged on either side of a road or a river.
-grid village: built in a planned manner, the streets have a regular layout, perpendicular streets form a grid-like network.
Dispersed settlement: A settlement consisting of a single isolated building or several residential houses and the farm buildings around these. It is usually inhabited by one single family and its services are supplied from othersettlements.
Farmstead: Situated on the outskirts of towns or villages, or scattered throughout rural areas, farmsteads are isolated settlements comprising one solitaryhouse, or a small group of houses and the buildings around these. They mostly evolved from temporary houses or farms.
Village: A clustered, closed, loose, permanentlyinhabited settlement, usually smaller than a town, which has no administrative functions and whose inhabitants´ main (original) activity is agriculture.