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The bones of the thorax

The bones of the thorax

The ribs, the sternum and the spinal column form the skeleton of the chest.

Biology

Keywords

chest, sternum, ribs, true rib, false rib, floating rib, cartilaginous joint, skeleton, ribcage, vertebra, cartilage, anatomy, human, biology

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Scenes

The thorax

  • sternum - This has three parts: the manubrium, the body and the xyphoid projection. The ribs are connected to it by cartilage.
  • ribs - Together with the sternum and the vertebrae, they form the skeleton of the chest (rib cage).
  • thoracic vertebrae
  • costal cartilages - They connect the ribs to the sternum. They are bars of hyaline cartilage; their elasticity allows the chest to dilate when breathing. Costal cartilages are articulated with the sternum.
  • true ribs - The first seven pairs of ribs are directly connected to the sternum at the front by the costal cartilages. These are known as ‘true ribs’.
  • false ribs - The last 5 pairs of ribs are known as 'false ribs'. The first 3 pairs of these (8–10th) are indirectly connected to the sternum, while the last 2 pairs (11–12th) are not connected to it.
  • floating ribs - The last two pairs of ribs are not connected to the sternum; their ends, covered by cartilage, are free. These are called ‘floating ribs’.

The thorax, commonly called the chest, is the part of the body located between the neck and the diaphragm. It consists of the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. The thoracic cavity contains vital organs such as the heart, the lungs and the oesophagus. The thoracic wall provides mechanical protection for these organs.
The thorax has a conical shape, narrow at the top and broad at the bottom. Its posterior surface, formed by the thoracic vertebrae and the posterior part of the ribs, is flattened. Its anterior surface is formed by the sternum and the anterior part of the ribs. This surface is convex in order to provide space for the internal organs. The thoracic wall also plays an important role in breathing through its active movement and elasticity.

Sternum

  • manubrium
  • body
  • xiphoid process

The sternum is a vertical, flat bone located in the anterior chest, on the midline. It is situated between the base of the neck and the abdominal cavity. The bone consists of three major parts: the manubrium, the body and the xiphoid process.

Its main role in the body is to provide support for the skeleton of the chest. It contains red bone marrow even in adults, therefore it plays a major role in blood formation.

Costal cartilages

Costal cartilages connect certain ribs to the sternum. They consist of hyaline cartilage. They are connected to the sternum by synovial joints. These joints and the elasticity of the hyaline cartilage allow the chest to expand during inhaling.

Ribs

  • true ribs - The first seven pairs of ribs are directly connected to the sternum at the front by the costal cartilages. These are known as ‘true ribs’.
  • false ribs - The last 5 pairs of ribs are known as 'false ribs'. The first 3 pairs of these (8–10th) are indirectly connected to the sternum, while the last 2 pairs (11–12th) are not connected to it.
  • floating ribs - The last two pairs of ribs are not connected to the sternum; their ends, covered by cartilage, are free. These are called ‘floating ribs’.

The ribs are curved flat bones that originate at the thoracic vertebrae and attach to the sternum. They contain red bone marrow. The number of ribs for both men and women is 12 pairs. The first 7 pairs of ribs are called true ribs and are directly attached to the sternum. The last five pairs of ribs are called false ribs. The first 3 pairs of these are indirectly connected to the sternum, while the last 2 pairs are not connected to it. Their ends, covered by cartilage, are free. These are called 'floating ribs'

Ribs have three main roles. They provide physical protection to the organs located in the chest cavity, they provide a place where intercostal muscles originate or attach and, through their red bone marrow content, they play an important role in blood formation.

Game

The skeleton and the internal organs

Narration

The thorax, commonly called the chest, is the part of the body located between the neck and the diaphragm. It consists of the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. The thoracic cavity contains vital organs such as the heart, the lungs and the oesophagus. The thoracic wall provides mechanical protection for these organs.
The thorax has a conical shape, narrow at the top and broad at the bottom. Its posterior surface, formed by the thoracic vertebrae and the posterior part of the ribs, is flattened. Its anterior surface is formed by the sternum and the anterior part of the ribs. This surface is convex in order to provide space for the internal organs. The thoracic wall also plays an important role in breathing through its active movement and elasticity.

The sternum is a vertical, flat bone located in the anterior chest, on the midline. It is situated between the base of the neck and the abdominal cavity. The bone consists of three major parts: the manubrium, the body and the xiphoid process.

Its main role in the body is to provide support for the skeleton of the chest. It contains red bone marrow even in adults, therefore it plays a major role in blood formation.

Costal cartilages connect certain ribs to the sternum. They consist of hyaline cartilage. They are connected to the sternum by synovial joints. These joints and the elasticity of the hyaline cartilage allow the chest to expand during inhaling.

The ribs are curved flat bones that originate at the thoracic vertebrae and attach to the sternum. They contain red bone marrow. The number of ribs for both men and women is 12 pairs. The first 7 pairs of ribs are called true ribs and are directly attached to the sternum. The last five pairs of ribs are called false ribs. The first 3 pairs of these are indirectly connected to the sternum, while the last 2 pairs are not connected to it. Their ends, covered by cartilage, are free. These are called 'floating ribs'

Ribs have three main roles. They provide physical protection to the organs located in the chest cavity, they provide a place where intercostal muscles originate or attach and, through their red bone marrow content, they play an important role in blood formation.

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