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The Knights Templar (12th-13th century)

The Knights Templar (12th-13th century)

One of the most important religious military orders, formed in the era of the Crusades.

History

Keywords

Templars, Knights Templar, Crusade, knight, Christian, crusader, religious order, Holy Land, pilgrimage, Middle Ages, history

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Questions

  • Which of the following religious orders participated in the Crusades besides the Templars?
  • Is the following statement true?\nThe Templars were not required to pay any taxes.
  • Is it true that, besides protecting the pilgrims, the Templars were also involved in medicine?
  • Which of the following religious orders participated in the Crusades besides the Templars?
  • Is it true that the Templars guarded the Shroud of Turin for 100 years?
  • What happened to the last Grand Master of the Templars?
  • On which day were the Templars arrested in France?
  • Is it true that the Templars had been active and uninterrupted until the 20th century?
  • Is it true that the Templars were disbanded because of the fabricated charges of King Philip IV of France?
  • Is it true that there was no superior authority above the Knights Templar besides the pope?
  • What was the symbol of the Templars?
  • Who was the leader of the Knights Templar?
  • Which of these was not a rank in the Knights Templar?
  • What was the most important role of the Knights Templar?
  • How many main ranks were there in the hierarchy of the Templars?
  • When was the Order of Solomon's Temple founded?
  • Is it true that the Templars name derives from Solomon's Temple, which served as their place of residence?
  • Where was the Order of Solomon's Temple founded?
  • Is it true that the Templars accumulated a huge fortune and influence over the years?
  • What was characteristic of the Templars' military tactics?
  • What happened on Friday, 13 October 1307 in France?
  • Is the following statement true?\nKing Charles Robert liquidated the Order of the Temple in Hungary.
  • Who was Hugues de Payens?
  • Is the following statement true?\nThe Templars could pass freely through all borders.
  • Which Christian relic was guarded by the Templars?
  • In which century were the Templars in their heyday?
  • Which French king caused the fall of the Templars?
  • Which of the following was NOT a characteristic weapon of the Templars?
  • Which of the following was NOT a characteristic weapon of the Templars?
  • What colour is the cross on the Templars' flag and tunic?
  • Who was the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar?
  • Who wrote the Rule of the Knights Templar?
  • The rule of the Knights Templar was modelled after which rule?
  • The Knights Templar were also called the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of ...
  • Which of the following was not a rank in the Templars' hierarchy?
  • Who was the right-hand man of the Grand Master?

Scenes

Knights Templar

  • knight (13th century)
  • knight (12th century)
  • sergeant

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, or Knights Templar, was one of the best-known Christian military orders. It was founded by a small group of knights in 1118 led by Hugues de Payens (or Payns). Baldwin II, the ruler of Jerusalem, gave them quarters in a wing of his palace built upon the site of Solomon’s Temple, hence their name.

The rule of the order, which was based on the Cistercian implementation of the Benedictine rule, was established at the Council of Troyes in 1129. It was revised several times and was finalised in the late 13th century.
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux's work, In Praise of the New Knighthood, an exhortation to the knights written at the request of Hugues de Payens in the 1130s, can be considered as the Templar's programme.

The primary task of the Knights Templar was the protection of pilgrims visiting the Holy Land as well as providing housing and medical care for them and, in general, fighting non-believers. (At first, their only task was the protection of pilgrimage routes.)

Pope Innocent II granted them special privileges which, together with donations from the public, helped catalyse the growth of the order. They extended their influence not only over the Holy Land but also Europe. First, they attracted influential supporters in the Kingdom of France and then in England. The order later spread to German and Spanish territories and Central Europe as well.

The Knights Templar reached the peak of their power in the late 13th century. They were present in almost every state of Europe. Their political influence and wealth were on par with those of monarchs. They were only subject to the pope.

In the early 14th century, however, they found themselves in conflict with the Kingdom of France. On 13 October 1307, Philip IV had their wealth confiscated in France and imprisoned them. He disbanded the Knights Templar, and sent the last Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, and his subordinate Geoffroi de Charney for trial based on false accusations, before burning them at the stake in 1314.

Knight (12th century)

  • head armour
  • white tunic with red cross
  • dagger
  • armour helmet
  • lance
  • double-edged sword
  • chain-mail leggings

The Knights Templar were divided into three main classes: the noble knights who made up the core of the order; the non-noble sergeants, and the chaplains. The chaplains were priests responsible for the spiritual needs of the Templars. They answered only to the pope besides the Grand Master.

The Knights Templar were led by the Grand Master who was appointed for life. The Seneschal was the right-hand man of the Grand Master, and, in war, had similar role to the Grand Master. The Marshal was the third in command and was in charge of arms and war. The next in the hierarchy was the preceptor and commander followed by the treasurer and the draper in charge of financial matters and clothing, respectively.

Knight (13th century)

  • helmet decoration
  • white tunic with red cross
  • double-edged sword
  • pot helm
  • chain-mail shirt
  • shoulder plate
  • dagger
  • chain-mail leggings
  • shield

The knights had the same equipment and clothing. They wore white tunics with a red cross on them. The use of this symbol was approved by the Pope.

Initially, the banner of the order was a black-and-silver shield. In the 12th century, a new banner with a black cross was introduced. In the early 13th century, however, the colour of the cross was changed to red.

Sergeant

  • battle axe
  • dagger
  • grey tunic with red cross
  • double-edged sword
  • chain-mail leggings

The second major class of the Knights Templar was that of the sergeants. This was the most populous of the three classes with almost ten times as many members than the knights. The chief task of these light cavalry officers was to support the knights, the heavy cavalry.

Armament

  • double-edged sword
  • dagger
  • battle axe
  • shield
  • flag of the order
  • shoulder plate
  • pot helm
  • armour helmet

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