Your cart is empty

Shop

Quantity: 0

Total: 0,00

0

Respiratory system

Respiratory system

The respiratory system is responsible for the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide.

Biology

Keywords

respiratory system, respiration, breathing, inhalation, exhalation, lung, chest, respiratory muscles, airway, bronchus, bronchi, alveolar sac, gas exchange, pulmonary circulation, red blood cell, oxygen binding, oxygen, carbon dioxide, model lung, trachea, larynx, nasal cavity, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, capillary, respiratory surface, human, biology

Related items

Questions

  • Is it true that the size of the left and right lung is the same?
  • In resting state, an adult takes 12 breaths a minute on average. The volume of air inhaled in one breath is about 0.5 litre. How much air does an adult breathe in during a day?
  • Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation. Is it true that the older we are, the smaller our vital capacity gets?
  • During breathing, the ... contracts and relaxes alternately.
  • Respiration is controlled by the ...
  • The main line of defence in the lungs against pathogens is the ...
  • Is it true that air pressure inside the lungs increases during inhaling?
  • Is it true that air pressure inside the lungs increases when we exhale?
  • Each alveolar sac is surrounded by ...

Scenes

Respiratory system

  • lungs - The main respiratory pair of organs. Inside them, the oxygen content of the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while the carbon dioxide content of the blood is released. The left one is divided into two lobes, the right one into three. The contractions of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles make the chest cavity expand and contract, which is passively followed by the expansion or contraction of the lungs.
  • trachea - It connects the larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. It is supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings.
  • nasal cavity
  • pharyngeal cavity
  • larynx - It is the organ that produces voice. During swallowing the epiglottis prevents food from getting into the trachea.One of the effects of tobacco smoking may be laryngeal cancer.
  • diaphragm - During inhaling it contracts and becomes flat, expanding the chest cavity and increasing the volume of the lungs. During exhaling the diaphragm relaxes and curves up towards the lungs, thus the volume of lungs decreases.
  • ribs - Bones that form the wall of the chest cavity. The contractions of the intercostal muscles during inhaling raise the ribcage, and lower it during exhaling.
  • sternum
  • intercostal muscles - The muscles that move the ribcage. During inhaling the contractions of the intercostal muscles raise the ribcage, and lower it during exhaling.

Alveolar sacs

  • bronchiole - The terminal branches of the bronchi that end in alveolar sacs.
  • alveolar sac - Their wall consists of simple squamous epithelium, through which gas exchange takes place.
  • capillary - Gas exchange takes place through the walls of the capillaries of the pulmonary circuit. Carbon dioxide is released from the blood into the alveolar sacs, while oxygen is absorbed into the blood. Oxygen is transported in the blood by the haemoglobin in red blood cells.
  • arteriole - Arteries and arterioles of the pulmonary circuit transport carbon dioxide-rich blood from the heart to the alveoles. Arterioles branch into capillaries.
  • venule - Veins and venules of the pulmonary circuit transport oxygen-rich blood from the the alveoles to the heart. Capillaries converge to form venules, which in turn form veins.

Chest

  • lungs - The main respiratory pair of organs. Inside them, the oxygen content of the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while the carbon dioxide content of the blood is released. The left one is divided into two lobes, the right one into three. The contractions of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles make the chest cavity expand and contract, which is passively followed by the expansion or contraction of the lungs.
  • trachea - It connects the larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. It is supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings.
  • true ribs - The upper 7 pair of ribs that are directly attached to the sternum by the costal cartilage.
  • false ribs - The 8th, 9th and 10th pair of ribs that are attached to the costal cartilage of the 7th pair of ribs.
  • floating ribs - The 11th and 12th pair of ribs that are not connected to the sternum.
  • diaphragm - During inhaling it contracts, it becomes flat expanding the chest cavity and increasing the volume of the lungs. During exhaling it relaxes and curves up towards the lungs, thus the volume of lungs decreases.
  • intercostal muscles - The muscles that move the ribcage. During inhaling the contractions of the intercostal muscles raise the ribcage, and lower it during exhaling.
  • main bronchus - The two main ones that branch from the trachea enter the lungs and branch into secondary bronchi.
  • sternum
  • bronchus - Thin tubes that branch into even thinner tubes within the lungs, to deliver the inhaled air to the bronchioles.

Gas exchange

  • simple squamous epithelium - The thinnest type of epithelium, through which gas exchange takes place.
  • capillary - Gas exchange takes place through the walls of the capillaries of the pulmonary circuit. Carbon dioxide is released from the blood into the alveolar sacs, while oxygen is absorbed into the blood. Oxygen is transported in the blood by the haemoglobin in red blood cells.
  • oxygen - During the breaking down (oxidation) of organic material the energy stored in their covalent bonds is used for ATP synthesis. This process consumes oxygen.
  • carbon dioxide - During biological oxidation carbon dioxide is released from organic molecules; the energy stored in their covalent bonds is used for ATP synthesis.

Red blood cells

  • oxygen - During the breaking down (oxidation) of organic material the energy stored in their covalent bonds is used for ATP synthesis. This process consumes oxygen.
  • carbon dioxide - During biological oxidation carbon dioxide is released from organic molecules; the energy stored in their covalent bonds is used for ATP synthesis.

Animation

Position of the respiratory system

  • lungs - The main respiratory pair of organs. Inside them, the oxygen content of the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while the carbon dioxide content of the blood is released. The left one is divided into two lobes, the right one into three. The contractions of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles make the chest cavity expand and contract, which is passively followed by the expansion or contraction of the lungs.
  • trachea - It connects the larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. It is supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings.
  • nasal cavity
  • larynx - It is the organ that produces voice. During swallowing the epiglottis prevents food from getting into the trachea.One of the effects of tobacco smoking may be laryngeal cancer.

Lungs

  • trachea - It connects the larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. It is supported by C-shaped cartilaginous rings.
  • main bronchus - The two main ones that branch from the trachea enter the lungs and branch into secondary bronchi.
  • bronchus - Thin tubes that branch into even thinner tubes within the lungs, to deliver the inhaled air to the bronchioles.

Narration

When we inhale, the contractions of the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles increase the volume of the chest cavity, which is passively followed by the expansion of the lungs and air thus flows into them. When we exhale, the air flows out of the lungs due to a decrease in the volume of the chest cavity.

The air inhaled flows into the main bronchi through the nasal cavity, the mouth cavity, the pharyngeal cavity and the trachea. The main bronchi convey air into the lungs, where they branch into bronchi and on to bronchioles. These Y-shaped branches, including the main bronchi, form 20-23 generations. The respiratory zone starts at the 17th division; that is, gas exchange also takes place through the walls of the bronchioles. The terminal branches end in alveolar sacs.

The walls of these consist of simple squamous epithelium, through which gas exchange takes place: oxygen is absorbed into the blood and carbon dioxide is released into the sacs. That is, blood in the pulmonary circuit becomes oxygenated. Oxygen is used by the cells of our bodies in their metabolic processes, which produce carbon dioxide as a by-product.

Related items

Effects of smoking on the lungs

Smoking severely damages the respiratory system, it may cause COPD or lung cancer.

Voice production

When producing sound, the vocal cords are vibrated by the air flowing out of the lung.

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) (beginner)

Colourless, odourless, heavier-than-air gas. Necessary for the photosynthesis of plants.

Circulatory system

Systemic circulation carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, while pulmonary circulation carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the lower limbs can cause a fatal pulmonary embolism if they enter the lungs.

How do fish breathe?

Blood vessels in fishes' gills absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

Oxygen (O₂) (beginner)

A colourless, odourless gas, an important component of the atmosphere, indispensable to sustain terrestrial life.

The bones of the thorax

The ribs, the sternum and the spinal column form the skeleton of the chest.

The heart

The heart is the central pump of the cardiovascular system beating several billion times over our lifetime.

The human blood

Human blood consists of blood cells and plasma.

The upper gastrointestinal tract

During swallowing food travels from the mouth cavity into the stomach.

The urinary system

The urinary system serves for the removal of harmful and useless materials from the body.

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) (intermediate)

Colourless, odourless, heavier-than-air gas. Necessary for the photosynthesis of plants.

Oxygen (O₂) (intermediate)

A colourless, odourless gas, an important component of the atmosphere, indispensable to sustain terrestrial life.

Added to your cart.