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Planets, sizes

Planets, sizes

The inner planets of the Solar System are terrestrial planets while the outer planets are gas giants.

Geography

Keywords

planets, Solar System, inner planets, outer planets, rocky planet, gas planet, Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, red supergiant, axis of rotation, astronomy, geography

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Questions

  • Which planet is the innermost planet of the Solar System?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which terrestrial planet does NOT have an atmosphere?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the god of travellers and merchants, the protector of thieves? \nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is the smallest in the Solar System?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the messenger of Gods?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet orbits the Sun once every 88 Earth days? \nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet rotates around its axis in 58.6 Earth days? \nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet does not have any moons and has a surface gravity that is one- third of Earth’s gravity?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet looks the most shiny from the Earth?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is called the Morning Star or Evening Star?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the Roman goddess of love?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after a goddess?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which terrestrial planet has the highest atmospheric density?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has the highest surface temperature?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which terrestrial planet rotates in the opposite direction as the others?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 6 minutes?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has a surface temperature changing between\n-70 °C and +56 °C?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 8.3 minutes?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has one single satellite?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • On which planet does ‘intelligent life’ exist?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which is the largest terrestrial planet?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has water on 75% of its surface?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has an orbital period of 365.25 days?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is called the ‘Blue planet’?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the Roman god of war?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has two satellites?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 12 minutes?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was reached by a man-made wheeled vehicle?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • On which planet is the highest mountain of the Solar System located?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • On which planet is the largest canyon system in the Solar System located?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is called the\n‘Red planet’?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet might be a second home for humanity?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which is the largest planet in the Solar System?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the chief god of the Romans?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • On which planet is the storm known as the ‘Great Red Spot’?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has the satellites Io, Europe, Callisto and Ganymede?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has the most satellites?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 43.5 minutes?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has an orbital period of 11.86 years?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has a mass 2.5 times larger than all the other planets together?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which is the second largest planet in the Solar System?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has the most spectacular ring system?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has such a low density that it would ‘float on water’?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 79.1 minutes?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is Titan the\nsatellite of?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has a moon with an atmosphere?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the Roman god of agriculture?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which is the farthest planet visible by the naked eye?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is hotter on its poles than on its equator?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet are Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon the moons of?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 2.39 hours?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which gas planet rotates in the opposite direction as the others?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the first deity in Greek mythology?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has satellites named after Shakespearean characters?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which is the seventh planet in the Solar System?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has an orbital period of 84 years?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which is the outermost planet in the Solar System?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet was named after the Roman god of sea?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which gas planet looks blue?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has the strongest wind in the solar System, reaching a speed of 2,000 km/h?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Of which planet is Triton the major moon?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet is reached by sunlight in 4.1 hours?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • Which planet has an orbital period of 164.8 years?\nClick on the picture of the planet.
  • On which planet is the storm called ‘Great Dark Spot’?\nClick on the picture of the planet.

Scenes

Planets: Large celestial bodies not emitting any light of their own, but lit by a star they orbit. Planets are formed out of the dust around the young star, by the collision and clumping of dust particles.

Terrestrial planets (Earth-type planets): Celestial bodies not emitting any light of their own, orbiting the Sun, thus having relatively high temperature. Small and lightweight, but high-density planets, with a composition dominated by heavy elements. They have solid surfaces and thin atmospheres. In the Solar System there are four terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

Gas planets (Jupiter-like planets): Celestial bodies not emitting any light of their own, composed of light elements (hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane). Gas planets have a low average density, but a large volume, and no solid surface. They have thick, dense, opaque atmospheres, the mass of which is the dominant part of the total mass of the planet. They have several satellites and ring systems. In the Solar System there are four gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

Size of the Sun

  • The Sun diameter: 1,392,000 km, (109 Earths) mass: 1.989x10³⁰ kg, (333,000 Earths)

Rotation axes

Red super giants

  • Sun - This star is classified as a yellow dwarf, its diameter is 109 times the diameter of the Earth. It was formed around 4.5 billion years ago. In 4-5 billion years, it will become a red giant. By this time, its surface will reach beyond the Earth's current orbit. Nuclear fusion inside its core will stop, radiation pressure will cease to exists and it will eventually collapse into a white dwarf.
  • VY Canis Majoris - One of the largest known stars of the Universe, a red giant 3,900 light-years away from the Earth. Its diameter is more than 1,400 times larger than that of the Sun, at nearly 2 billion kilometres (although according to other calculations, its diameter is nearly 3 billion kilometres). It would take an aeroplane travelling at a speed of 1,000 km/h about 700 years to complete one orbit around the star. If this star was in the centre of our Solar System, Jupiter's orbit would be inside it. Canis Majoris will either become a black hole or a neutron star after it explodes as a supernova.
  • Betelgeuse - The ninth brightest star in the sky is 640 light-years away from the Earth. Its diameter is around a thousand times that of the Sun. It will either become a black hole or a neutron star after it explodes as a supernova.

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The life-cycle of the Solar System

The formation of the Sun and the planets started with the contraction of a dust cloud about 4.5 billion years ago.

The Solar System; planetary orbits

The orbits of the 8 planets in our Solar System are elliptical.

Earth

The Earth is a rocky planet with a solid crust and oxygen in its atmosphere.

Jupiter

Jupiter is the largest planet of the Solar System, it has two and a half times the mass of all the other planets combined.

Kepler´s laws of planetary motion

The three important laws describing planetary motion were formulated by Johannes Kepler.

Mars

Possible traces of water and life are sought on Mars.

Mercury

Mercury is innermost and smallest planet of the Solar System.

Milky Way

The diameter of our galaxy is about 100,000 light years; it contains more than 100 billion stars, one of which is our Sun.

Our astronomical neighbourhood

A demonstration of nearby planets, stars and galaxies.

Saturn

Saturn is the second largest planet in the Solar System, easily recognisable by its rings.

The New Horizons mission

The New Horizons space probe was launched in 2006, with the objective to study Pluto and the Kuiper Belt.

The Sun

The diameter of the Sun is about 109 times that of the Earth. Most of its mass consists of hydrogen.

Uranus

Uranus is the 7th planet from the Sun, a gas giant.

Venus

Venus is the 2nd planet from the Sun, the brightest object on the night sky (after the Moon).

Voyager space probes

The Voyager space probes were the first man-made objects to leave the Solar System. They gather data about outer space and carry information about humanity.

Comets

Comets are spectacular celestial bodies orbiting the Sun.

Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope orbits outside the distorting influence of Earth´s atmosphere.

Neptune

Neptune is the outermost planet of the Solar System, the smallest of the giant planets

Pluto - Charon system

The largest satellite of Pluto is Charon.

Solar eclipse

When the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are arranged in a straight line, the Moon can partially or completely obscure the Sun.

The Cassini-Huygens Mission (1997-2017)

The Cassini spacecraft was exploring Saturn and its moons for nearly 20 years.

The Dawn mission

Studying Ceres and Vesta will help us learn more about the early history of the Solar System and how rocky planets are formed.

Kepler space telescope

The Kepler space telescope was launched by NASA to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars

Mars Exploration Program

Space probes and Mars rovers examine the structure of Mars and possible traces of life.

Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a manned, reusable spacecraft operated by NASA.

Sputnik 1 (1957)

The Soviet-made satellite was the first spacecraft to be launched into outer space (in October 1957).

The Sun's path above the major circles of latitude

The apparent movement of the Sun is caused by the Earth's rotation around its axis.

Types of stars

This animation demonstrates the process of star development for average and massive stars.

Weightlessness

A spacecraft on its path is in a constant state of free fall.

Interesting astronomy facts

This animation presents some interesting facts in the field of astronomy.

ISS

The International Space Station is a habitable satellite built with the cooperation of 16 countries.

Satellite types

Satellites orbiting the Earth can be used for civilian or military purposes.

Structure of the Earth (intermediate)

The Earth is composed of several spherical layers.

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