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Optical instruments

Optical instruments

A wide variety of optical instruments are in use today, ranging from microscopes to telescopes.

Technology

Keywords

optical instruments, magnifier, microscope, binoculars, telescope, lupe, optical microscope, riflescope, eyepiece, camera lens, converging lens, prism, enlarged image, lens, optics, invention, inventions, astronomy, physics, technology

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Optical instruments

  • magnifying glass - A convex lens capable of low magnification, maximum 30x. For higher magnification we use microscopes.
  • microscope - A system consisting of two convex lenses. The enlarged image formed by the first lens is further enlarged by the second one.
  • astronomical telescope - A Keplerian telescope consists of two convex lenses. Its serves mainly to increase light intensity, not to magnify the image. It produces an inverted image.
  • telescopic sight - It works similarly to a Keplerian telescope, but there is a third lens between the two convex lenses, serving to invert the image. Thus it produces an erect image.
  • binoculars - There is a system of prisms between the two convex lenses, serving to invert the image. Thus it produces an erect image.

Magnifying glass

Astronomical telescope

  • barrel - It contains the optics.
  • viewfinder - It usually has a much lower magnification than the main telescope. It helps to locate the desired astronomical object in the night sky.
  • converging (convex) lens (objective lens) - It refracts the incoming parallel light rays which then meet in the focal point and travel towards the second convex lens. The telescope gathers incoming light thereby increasing light intensity. Thus stars seem brighter and even distant, dim stars can be observed which are not visible to the naked eye.
  • converging (convex) lens (ocular lens) - Its focal point coincides with the focal point of the front lens. Thus it refracts light rays so that they become parallel when they reach the ocular lens. Thus the eye focuses to infinity.

Binoculars

  • fine adjustment knob
  • converging (convex) lens (objective lens) - It refracts the incoming parallel light rays.
  • image erecting prism system - Since the two lenses would produce an inverted image (similarly to a Keplerian telescope), a system of prisms is necessary to erect the image. One of the prisms inverts the image horizontally, the other vertically. The prism system also allows the binoculars to be shorter, as the light does not pass through the tubes in a straight line.
  • converging (convex) lens (ocular lens) - It refracts the diverging light rays so that they become parallel when they reach the eye. Thus the eye focuses to infinity.

Microscope

  • ocular lens (eyepiece) - Its convex lens further enlarges the magnified image formed by the objective lens.
  • barrel
  • revolving nosepiece - It contains objectives with different magnitudes of magnification. We can select the required one by turning the nosepiece.
  • objective - The object is placed outside the focal distance of the convex objective lens. Thus a magnified image is formed. This image is further enlarged by the convex ocular lens.
  • stage - It holds the microscope slide with the sample for examination. The sample is very thin, letting the light through into the objective lens.
  • microscope slide - A thin sheet of glass, used to hold objects for examination under a microscope. The sample is illuminated, its regions absorb light in different degrees and thus an image is formed.
  • mirror - It mirrors light into the optics. Modern microscopes use built-in light sources instead of mirrors.
  • arm
  • converging (convex) lens (ocular lens) - Its convex lens further enlarges the magnified image formed by the objective lens.
  • converging (convex) lens (objective lens) - The object is placed outside the focal distance of the convex objective lens. Thus a magnified image is formed. This image is further enlarged by the convex ocular lens.

Telescopic sight

  • dovetail
  • converging (convex) lens (ocular lens) - It refracts the diverging light rays so that they become parallel when they reach the eye. Thus the eye focuses to infinity.
  • image erecting (relay) lens (converging lens) - Since the two lenses would produce an inverted image (similarly to a Keplerian telescope), a third lens is necessary to erect the image.
  • converging (convex) lens (objective lens) - It refracts the incoming parallel light rays.
  • crosshair

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