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NAD⁺, NADP⁺, NADPH

NAD⁺, NADP⁺, NADPH

NAD⁺ is a coenzyme that plays an important role mainly in catabolic processes, while NADP is important in anabolic processes as hydrogen carriers.

Biology

Keywords

NAD, NADP, NADPH, nicotinamide dinucleotide, nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate, nucleotide, electron transfer, hydrogen transport, catabolic process, catabolism, anabolism, coenzyme, nicotinamide, adenine, phosphate, ribose, biology, biochemistry, chemistry

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NAD⁺

NAD⁺,
Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide
(C₂₁H₂₇N₇O₁₄P₂)

Information

Molar mass: 663.43 g/mol

Melting point: 160 °C

Properties

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD⁺, consists of two nucleotides, one of which contains an adenine base and the other consists of nicotinamide.

In powdered form, it is white, hygroscopic and easily soluble in water.

NAD⁺ is a co-enzyme in metabolic processes. It is responsible for transporting hydrogen in energy-releasing, catabolic processes. It is easily reduced; it acts as a hydrogen acceptor in reactions.

Occurrence and production

It can be found in all living cells. It mostly occurs in animal source foods, while plant-source foods contain it in relatively small amounts.

Uses

NAD⁺ is used in enzymatic analysis in biochemical and clinical laboratories. Its reduced form, NADH, is used in dietary supplements.

NAD⁺ (space-filling)

NADP⁺

NADP⁺,
Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide phosphate
(C₂₁H₂₉N₇O₁₇P₃)

Information

Molar mass: 744.41 g/mol

Properties

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, also known as NADP⁺, only differs from NAD⁺ in that there is an additional phosphate group in the molecule. NADP⁺ is also a hydrogen-transporter coenzyme; however, it is involved in anabolic processes: it carries hydrogen necessary for reduction reactions.

Occurrence and production

It can be found in all living cells. It mostly occurs in animal source foods, while plant-source foods contain it in relatively small amounts.

Uses

NADP⁺ is used in enzymatic analysis in biochemical and clinical laboratories. Its reduced form, NADPH, is used in dietary supplements.

NADP⁺ (space-filling)

NADPH

NADPH (C₂₁H₃₀N₇O₁₇P₃)

Information

Molar mass: 745.44 g/mol

Properties

NADPH is the reduced form of NADP⁺; its biological function is hydrogen transportation. In powdered form it is white, hygroscopic and easily soluble in water.

With only a few exceptions, NADPH is involved in anabolic processes.

Occurrence and production

It can be found in all living cells. It mostly occurs in animal source foods, while plant-source foods contain it in relatively small amounts.

Uses

It is used in dietary supplements.

NADPH (space-filling)

Narration

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Enzymes

Enzymes are protein molecules catalysing biochemical reactions. Their activity can be regulated.

ADP, ATP

ATP is the main source of energy for cells.

Coenzyme A

An acyl-carrier coenzyme taking part in both anabolic and catabolic processes.

Beta-D-ribose (C₅H₁₀O₅)

A crystalline compound found in nucleic acids, coenzymes, nucleotides and nucleosides.

Phosphoric acid (H₃PO₄)

It is also used as a food additive, limescale and rust remover.

Purine (C₅H₄N₄)

A heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, its derivatives include guanine and adenine.

D-ribose (C₅H₁₀O₅)

The open-chain version of ribose, which occurs naturally in nucleic acids, coenzymes, nucleotides and nucleosides.

Phosphate ion (PO₄³⁻)

A compound ion formed when a phosphoric acid molecule releases a proton.

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