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Mechanism of taste reception

Mechanism of taste reception

Taste receptors convert chemical stimuli into electric signals.

Biology

Keywords

sense of taste, sensory organ, perception, ízlelőszerv, tongue, ízérző központ, ízlelőszemölcs, taste bud, umami, sweet, bitter, sour, salty, nyál, alapíz, signal, stimulus, receptor, human, nervous system, central nervous system, biology

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Scenes

Papilla

  • non-keratinised stratified squamous
  • taste bud - Receptors are grouped here.
  • saliva - It dissolves substances in food which taste receptors can detect.
  • moat
  • nerve fibre - It conducts the impulse produced in the receptor.
  • salivary gland
  • muscle fibres - They are responsible for moving the tongue.

Taste bud

  • pore
  • microvilli
  • receptor cell - Modified epithelial cell receiving taste stimuli through its microvilli and producing an impulse. Each one of them is stimulated by a certain substance. The taste sensation depends on which ones are stimulated.
  • supporting cell
  • neuron

Gustatory organ

  • nasal cavity
  • palate
  • teeth
  • tongue - It plays an important role in forming a bolus, swallowing, as well as in speech and taste. There are papillae on its surface which contain gustatory receptors (taste buds, also found on the palate and in the pharynx).
  • taste centre - The impulses produced in the taste receptors are switched in the thalamus, and reach this area of the brain.

Mechanism of taste reception

  • taste centre - The impulses produced in the taste receptors are switched in the thalamus, and reach this area of the brain.

Animation

  • tongue - It plays an important role in forming a bolus, swallowing, as well as in speech and taste. There are papillae on its surface which contain gustatory receptors (taste buds, also found on the palate and in the pharynx).
  • taste centre - The impulses produced in the taste receptors are switched in the thalamus, and reach this area of the brain.
  • taste bud - Receptors are grouped here.
  • saliva - It dissolves substances in food which taste receptors can detect.
  • moat
  • nerve fibre - It conducts the impulse produced in the receptor.
  • salivary gland
  • pore
  • microvilli
  • receptor cell - Modified epithelial cell receiving taste stimuli through its microvilli and producing an impulse. Each one of them is stimulated by a certain substance. The taste sensation depends on which ones are stimulated.
  • supporting cell
  • neuron

Narration

Our sense of taste plays an important role in choosing food that is safe to eat and in detecting and avoiding dangerous, poisonous substances. Taste receptors found on the tongue are sensitive to various chemical substances, each of which produce a different taste sensation. Impulses produced by taste receptors are transmitted to the brain through cranial nerves VII, IX and X, where they are switched by the thalamus and finally reach the cortical taste centre. Taste sensation is generated in the cerebral cortex.

Flavours are mixtures of basic tastes. Originally there were only four basic tastes identified: sweet, salty, sour and bitter. Today, however, umami, a sort of pleasant savoury taste, is also recognised as one of the basic tastes, as well as water.
Certain receptors are typically stimulated by metallic ions, for example sodium ions. The impulse produced by these receptors creates a salty taste sensation. A sweet taste is mainly created by mono- and disaccharides, while a sour taste is the result of acids. A bitter taste usually originates in substances that harm the body, therefore we identify a bitter taste as 'bad' and we try to avoid it. The characteristic umami taste is produced by an amino acid known as glutamic acid, or a derivative of it used as a flavour enhancer, monosodium glutamate. Foods rich in umami taste include tomatoes, spinach, fish, meat soup, soy sauce and marinated meat. According to the latest research, there are also receptors that can detect water.

The fine structure of the gustatory organ is demonstrated through sweet and sour taste receptors.

The surface of the tongue features papillae surrounded by 'moats'. These are filled with saliva, produced by salivary glands. Taste substances are dissolved in the saliva, which then diffuse into the taste buds. The impulse produced in the taste buds is transmitted to the brain by nerve fibres.

The taste buds are embedded in the epithelium of the tongue. A taste bud consists of receptor cells and supporting cells. Taste substances reach the microvilli of receptor cells through the taste pores. The impulse produced in the taste bud is transmitted to the brain by the axons of neurons, where it causes a taste sensation.

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