Local winds

The most important types of local winds are the sea-land breeze, the mountain-valley breeze as well as the downslope winds.

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Hotspots are areas of the Earth´s crust where magma often rises to the surface and causes...

Underground waters

Groundwater and aquifers are types of underground waters.

Monsoon wind system

In summer, monsoon winds bring heavy rainfall from the sea to the mainland.

The phosphorus cycle

The phosphorus cycle describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere,...

Nitrogen cycle

Atmospherical nitrogen is bound by bacteria and used by living organisms in the form of...

Formation of stratovolcanoes

Stratovolcanoes consist of layers of volcanic ash, debris and lava.

Fascinating atmospheric phenomena

We can often observe spectacular atmospheric phenomena. Let's see how some of these are formed.

Greenhouse effect

Human activity increases the greenhouse effect and leads to global warming.

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