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How does it work? - Gearbox

How does it work? - Gearbox

In transmission systems, the engine torque is modified by reducing or increasing rotational speed.

Technology

Keywords

gear lever, car, gearbox, gear stick, clutch, velocity, rotational speed, gear, synchroniser ring, axis, reverse gear, car manufacturing, automobile, internal combustion engine, physics, technology, transportation

Related items

Scenes

Location in the car

  • gearbox - It adjusts the ratio of transmission between the engine and the drive shaft. It changes the number of rotations of the driven wheels during one turn of the crankshaft. In low gear the output of the engine is high but the speed is low, in high gear the car is faster and uses less fuel but it accelerates slower.
  • engine
  • car

A car is driven by an engine with a given power. However, the amount of torque originating from engine power is not always enough to move the vehicle, so the torque must be increased. The lower the revolution of the gears, the greater the torque. In transmission systems, the engine torque is modified by reducing or increasing the number of revolutions per minute (RPM). The RPM can be changed by selecting gears: the smaller the gear that drives a bigger one, the smaller the rotational speed of the bigger gear and thus the greater the torque.

Construction

  • gearbox lever - The driver is able to shift gears with this device.
  • clutch pedal - When pressed, the connection is broken between the clutch and the gearbox.
  • clutch - It is found between the engine and the gearbox. It helps to transfer the engine's power to the gearbox. It also breaks the connection between the engine and the gearbox during gear shift.
  • clutch fluid reservoir - The engine's power is transferred by the fluid's kinetic energy.
  • drive shaft - Input shaft.
  • output shaft - Output shaft.
  • countershaft - Shaft needed for shifting gears.
  • gears - They participate in selecting the right transmission ratio.
  • shift linkage - It moves the sleeve.

To enable the engine to move the gears, a connection has to be established between them, which can be disengaged if needed. This is the job of the clutch. The optimal RPM is adjusted by setting the appropriate ratio of the gears.

Operation of the clutch

  • clutch - It is found between the engine and the gearbox. It helps to transfer the engine's power to the gearbox. It also breaks the connection between the engine and the gearbox during gear shift.
  • clutch pedal - When pressed, the connection is broken between the clutch and the gearbox.

With the clutch pedal released, the engine drives the input shaft and thus the wheels. With the clutch pedal pressed down, the crankshaft revolves without driving the transmission and the wheels. This enables us to shift gears.

Operation of the synchroniser ring

  • sleeve - Sliding on the shaft, it assists in meshing the gears during gear shifts.
  • synchroniser ring - It assists in equalising the different rotational speed of pairs of gears and meshing them.
  • drive shaft - Shaft entering the gearbox.

To avoid grinding and weary shifting, gears need to be synchronised, which means meshing gears rotating at the same speed. A synchroniser ring makes that possible. With a clinging surface and sloping edges, the ring equalises the rotational speed of a pair of gears and engages them, making the gear change noiseless and smooth.

Operation of the gearbox

  • gearbox lever - The driver is able to shift gears with this device.
  • drive shaft - Input shaft.
  • output shaft - Output shaft.
  • countershaft - Shaft needed for shifting gears.
  • cogwheels - They participate in selecting the right transmission ratio.
  • selector fork - Attached to the shift linkage, it helps in switching gears.
  • sleeve - Sliding on the shaft, it meshes the gears during gear shifts.
  • shift linkage - It moves the sleeve.
  • first gear
  • second gear
  • third gear
  • fourth gear

In synchronised transmission systems, all the gears are constantly in mesh. While the gears on the countershaft are in a fixed position, the gears on the output shaft rotate on their own bearings. Shifting between gears occurs by fixing the current gear to the output shaft, so the drive goes through that pair of gears.

To get the vehicle moving, we shift into first gear. The linkage, with the help of the sleeve attached to it, fixes the first gear on the output shaft. The drive through the input shaft goes from the smallest gear on the countershaft to the largest gear on the output shaft. Since more torque is necessary to start out, first gear has the biggest gear ratio, meaning the smallest gear is in mesh with the biggest one.

When the vehicle has reached a certain speed, less torque is required to keep it moving. The ratio of the succeeding gears becomes smaller and smaller, the driving gears and the driven gears are nearing the same size. In second gear, the sleeve fixes the second gear to the output shaft, conducting the driving force through it.

In third gear, the sleeve fixes the third gear to the shaft. The drive goes through the third gear on the countershaft and the third gear on the output shaft. The speed is increased, while the torque is being lowered.

In fourth gear, the speed increases further by lowering torque. In this case, drive goes directly through the input and output shafts. No gears are involved in the transmission. The RPM of the engine's crankshaft equals that of the output shaft - hence, the name direct drive.

Reverse gear

In reverse gear, an additional gear is applied between the last gears on the countershaft and the output shaft. It changes the rotational direction of the output shaft, moving the vehicle backwards.

In lower gear, the car is slower but 'pulls' harder. In higher gear, the vehicle is faster and uses less fuel but has weaker acceleration.

Animation

A car is driven by an engine with a given power. However, the amount of torque originating from engine power is not always enough to move the vehicle, so the torque must be increased. The lower the revolution of the gears, the greater the torque. In transmission systems, the engine torque is modified by reducing or increasing the number of revolutions per minute (RPM). The RPM can be changed by selecting gears: the smaller the gear that drives a bigger one, the smaller the rotational speed of the bigger gear and thus the greater the torque.

To enable the engine to move the gears, a connection has to be established between them, which can be disengaged if needed. This is the job of the clutch. The optimal RPM is adjusted by setting the appropriate ratio of the gears.

With the clutch pedal released, the engine drives the input shaft and thus the wheels. With the clutch pedal pressed down, the crankshaft revolves without driving the transmission and the wheels. This enables us to shift gears.

To avoid grinding and weary shifting, gears need to be synchronised, which means meshing gears rotating at the same speed. A synchroniser ring makes that possible. With a clinging surface and sloping edges, the ring equalises the rotational speed of a pair of gears and engages them, making the gear change noiseless and smooth.

In synchronised transmission systems, all the gears are constantly in mesh. While the gears on the countershaft are in a fixed position, the gears on the output shaft rotate on their own bearings. Shifting between gears occurs by fixing the current gear to the output shaft, so the drive goes through that pair of gears.

To get the vehicle moving, we shift into first gear. The linkage, with the help of the sleeve attached to it, fixes the first gear on the output shaft. The drive through the input shaft goes from the smallest gear on the countershaft to the largest gear on the output shaft. Since more torque is necessary to start out, first gear has the biggest gear ratio, meaning the smallest gear is in mesh with the biggest one.

When the vehicle has reached a certain speed, less torque is required to keep it moving. The ratio of the succeeding gears becomes smaller and smaller, the driving gears and the driven gears are nearing the same size. In second gear, the sleeve fixes the second gear to the output shaft, conducting the driving force through it.

In third gear, the sleeve fixes the third gear to the shaft. The drive goes through the third gear on the countershaft and the third gear on the output shaft. The speed is increased, while the torque is being lowered.

In fourth gear, the speed increases further by lowering torque. In this case, drive goes directly through the input and output shafts. No gears are involved in the transmission. The RPM of the engine's crankshaft equals that of the output shaft – hence, the name direct drive.

In reverse gear, an additional gear is applied between the last gears on the countershaft and the output shaft. It changes the rotational direction of the output shaft, moving the vehicle backwards.

In lower gear, the car is slower but 'pulls' harder. In higher gear, the vehicle is faster and uses less fuel but has weaker acceleration.

Narration

A car is driven by an engine with a given power. However, the amount of torque originating from engine power is not always enough to move the vehicle, so the torque must be increased. The lower the revolution of the gears, the greater the torque. In transmission systems, the engine torque is modified by reducing or increasing the number of revolutions per minute (RPM). The RPM can be changed by selecting gears: the smaller the gear that drives a bigger one, the smaller the rotational speed of the bigger gear and thus the greater the torque.

To enable the engine to move the gears, a connection has to be established between them, which can be disengaged if needed. This is the job of the clutch. The optimal RPM is adjusted by setting the appropriate ratio of the gears.

With the clutch pedal released, the engine drives the input shaft and thus the wheels. With the clutch pedal pressed down, the crankshaft revolves without driving the transmission and the wheels. This enables us to shift gears.

To avoid grinding and weary shifting, gears need to be synchronised, which means meshing gears rotating at the same speed. A synchroniser ring makes that possible. With a clinging surface and sloping edges, the ring equalises the rotational speed of a pair of gears and engages them, making the gear change noiseless and smooth.

In synchronised transmission systems, all the gears are constantly in mesh. While the gears on the countershaft are in a fixed position, the gears on the output shaft rotate on their own bearings. Shifting between gears occurs by fixing the current gear to the output shaft, so the drive goes through that pair of gears.

To get the vehicle moving, we shift into first gear. The linkage, with the help of the sleeve attached to it, fixes the first gear on the output shaft. The drive through the input shaft goes from the smallest gear on the countershaft to the largest gear on the output shaft. Since more torque is necessary to start out, first gear has the biggest gear ratio, meaning the smallest gear is in mesh with the biggest one.

When the vehicle has reached a certain speed, less torque is required to keep it moving. The ratio of the succeeding gears becomes smaller and smaller, the driving gears and the driven gears are nearing the same size. In second gear, the sleeve fixes the second gear to the output shaft, conducting the driving force through it.

In third gear, the sleeve fixes the third gear to the shaft. The drive goes through the third gear on the countershaft and the third gear on the output shaft. The speed is increased, while the torque is being lowered.

In fourth gear, the speed increases further by lowering torque. In this case, drive goes directly through the input and output shafts. No gears are involved in the transmission. The RPM of the engine's crankshaft equals that of the output shaft – hence, the name direct drive.

In reverse gear, an additional gear is applied between the last gears on the countershaft and the output shaft. It changes the rotational direction of the output shaft, moving the vehicle backwards.

In lower gear, the car is slower but 'pulls' harder. In higher gear, the vehicle is faster and uses less fuel but has weaker acceleration.

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