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European pond turtle

European pond turtle

The animation shows the anatomy of turtles.

Biology

Keywords

tortoise, syncline, keratin shell, keratinous scute, homology, hibernation, animal, vertebrates, reptile, predator, biology

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Scenes

European pond turtle

Shell

  • plastron
  • carapace - The outer shell layer was formed from the horny layer of the skin. During the course of evolution, the inner layer has developed as a result of the modification of the bones.

Skeleton

  • procoracoid - It is a bone of the shoulder girdle. It is found in reptiles, birds and tailless amphibians. In mammals, there is no equivalent (homologous) bone.
  • pelvis
  • spinal column - The extensions of the vertebrae are part of the carapace structure.
  • rib - It is part of the carapace structure.
  • scapula - It is part of the plastron structure.
  • coracoid - It is a bone of the shoulder girdle. It is found in reptiles, birds and tailless amphibians. In mammals, there is no equivalent (homologuous) bone. (In humans, the extension of the scapula is called the coracoid process. However, the name does not indicate a common origin.)

Withdrawal

Homology of human and turtle limbs

  • human arm
  • turtle forelimb
  • scapula
  • humerus
  • bones of the lower arm - The radius is on the thumb side of the wrist and the ulna is on the little finger side.
  • carpals
  • metacarpals
  • finger bones

Animation

  • plastron
  • carapace - The outer shell layer was formed from the horny layer of the skin. During the course of evolution, the inner layer has developed as a result of the modification of the bones.
  • spinal column - The extensions of the vertebrae are part of the carapace structure.
  • rib - It is part of the carapace structure.
  • human arm
  • turtle forelimb
  • scapula
  • humerus
  • bones of the lower arm - The radius is on the thumb side of the wrist and the ulna is on the little finger side.
  • carpals
  • metacarpals
  • finger bones
  • human leg
  • hind limb
  • pelvis
  • femur
  • bones of the lower leg - The bones of the lower leg are the tibia and the fibula.
  • tarsal bones
  • metatarsal bones
  • finger bones

Narration

The European pond turtle is found in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa. It lives in lakes, ponds, swampy areas, and slow-flowing waters. It is a good swimmer and it likes to rest on tree stumps and stones protruding from the water. It catches invertebrates, amphibians, and sometimes also fish, but often it also feeds on plants. It has no teeth, but uses its beak, that is, the sharp edges along its jaws to cut food into small pieces.

The shell of the pond turtle consists of two parts: a dorsal and a ventral section, called the carapace and the plastron.

Turtles can defend themselves by retracting their head and limbs into the shell.

The outer shell layer was formed from the horny layer of the skin. During evolution, the inner layer developed through the modification of the bones. The extensions of the vertebrae and the ribs are part of the carapace structure.

A closer examination of human and turtle limbs reveals that they have a common origin, that is, they are homologous structures.

On the front limbs of the turtle, however, the scapula is elongated.

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