El Niño

A periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean every five years.

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The dissolution of limestone results in the development of karst formations.


The rise and drop of sea levels caused by the gravitational force of the Moon.

Snow line

Above a certain altitude snow does not melt, not even in summer.

Why is seawater salty?

Water covers about 71% of the Earth’s surface. But why are there two types of water on Earth,...


Waves play an important role in forming the coast.

The phosphorus cycle

The phosphorus cycle describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere,...


Within the lethal embrace of deserts, life can only flourish because of large springs. Here...

Aeolian landforms on coasts and steppes

Wind, as an external force, plays an important role in shaping coastal areas and steppes.

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