Your cart is empty

Shop

Quantity: 0

Total: 0,00

0

Earth

Earth

The Earth is a rocky planet with a solid crust and oxygen in its atmosphere.

Geography

Keywords

Earth, planet, rocky planet, Moon, Solar System, Sun, axis of rotation, geoid, rotation, orbit, circulatory system, geosphere, crust, lithosphere, mantle, core, atmosphere, biosphere, Arctic Circle, Tropic of Cancer, Equator, Tropic of Capricorn, Antarctic Circle, tide, seasons, geography

Related items

Questions

  • How long does it take for the Moon to complete on orbit around the Earth?
  • Is it true that the Earth has the largest diameter of the terrestrial planets?
  • Is it true that the Earth has the largest mass of the terrestrial planets?
  • Is it true that the Earth has the largest density of the terrestrial planets?
  • Is it true that the Earth formed about 2 billion years ago?
  • Is it true that terrestrial planets emit light of their own?
  • Is it true that terrestrial planets have a solid surface?
  • Is it true that the density of terrestrial planets is low?
  • Is it true that the Earth's axis of rotation is perpendicular to the orbital plane?
  • Is it true that the thickness of the oceanic and the continental crust is different?
  • Is it true that, within one year, the angle of incidence of sunlight changes at the same location?
  • Is it true that without the greenhouse effect, the surface temperature on Earth would be -15°C?
  • Is it true that 70 percent of the Earth's surface is land?
  • Is it true that we always see the same side of the Moon from the Earth?
  • Is it true that the distance of the Moon and the Earth is constant?
  • What is the average distance of the Moon from the Earth?
  • What are the two main components of the Earth's atmosphere?
  • What percentage of the Earth's surface is covered by dry land?
  • Is it true that the Earth and the Moon orbit their common centre of mass?
  • When did man step on the Moon first?
  • The Earth is the ... planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
  • The Earth is the ... largest planet in the Solar System.
  • When did the Earth form?
  • How long does it take for the Earth to complete one orbit around the Sun?
  • What is the average thickness of the Earth's crust?
  • What is the primary cause of tide on Earth?
  • The Earth has the ... diameter among the terrestrial planets in the Solar System.
  • The Earth has the ... mass among the terrestrial planets in the Solar System.
  • The Earth has the ... density among the terrestrial planets in the Solar System.

Scenes

Solar System

The Earth is the third planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fifth largest of the planets, and the largest of the terrestrial planets in terms of diameter, mass and density. The Earth is the only known planet in the Universe where life exists. According to our current understanding, the Earth formed
4.57 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within a billion years.

Definition of terms:
Terrestrial planet (Earth-type planet): a celestial body not emitting any light of its own, revolving close to the Sun, thus, having relatively high temperature. Terrestrial planets are small and light, but have a high density. Among its elements the heavy ones are the most important. Terrestrial planets have solid surfaces and thin atmospheres.

Earth

  • axis of rotation
  • line perpendicular to the orbital plane
  • orbital plane of the Earth
  • orbit of the Earth
  • N
  • Arctic Circle
  • Tropic of Cancer
  • Equator
  • Tropic of Capricorn
  • Antarctic Circle
  • S
  • 23.5°

Data:

diameter: 12,756 km

mass: 5.974×10²⁴ kg

average density: 5.52 g/cm³

surface gravity: 1 g (acceleration: 9.81 m/s²)

surface temperature: between -70 °C and +56 °C, on average 15 °C

number of moons: 1

rotation period: 23 hours 56 minutes (as compared to the stars)

axial tilt: 23,5°

average distance from the Sun:
149,600,000 km = 1 AU =
8.3 light minutes

orbital eccentricity: 0.0167

orbital period: 365.25 days

Moon

  • Montes Alpes
  • Sea of Showers
  • Sea of Cold
  • Sea of Serenity
  • Sea of Tranquility
  • Sea of Fertility
  • Sea of Crisis
  • Sea of Nectar
  • Sea of Clouds
  • Sea of Moisture
  • Sea of Cleverness
  • Eastern Sea
  • Sea of William Henry Smyth
  • Ocean of Storms
  • Montes Carpatus
  • Montes Jura
  • Montes Caucasus
  • Montes Apenninus
  • Montes Taurus
  • Montes Pyrenaeus
  • Montes Cordillera
  • Plato (crater)
  • Copernicus (crater)
  • Gagarin (crater)
  • Szilárd (crater)
  • Zsigmondy (crater)
  • Highland region on the Moon’s other side
  • Bolyai (crater)
  • Eötvös (crater)
  • Pasteur (crater)

Moon:

average distance from the Earth:
384,400 km

diameter: 3,475 km

mass: 7.348x10²² kg

average density: 3.34 g/cm³

surface gravity: 0.165 g (1/6 g)

Orbit of the Moon

  • Montes Alpes
  • Sea of Showers
  • Sea of Cold
  • Sea of Serenity
  • Sea of Tranquility
  • Sea of Fertility
  • Sea of Crisis
  • Sea of Nectar
  • Sea of Clouds
  • Sea of Moisture
  • Sea of Cleverness
  • Eastern Sea
  • Sea of William Henry Smyth
  • Ocean of Storms
  • Montes Carpatus
  • Montes Jura
  • Montes Caucasus
  • Montes Apenninus
  • Montes Taurus
  • Montes Pyrenaeus
  • Montes Cordillera
  • Plato (crater)
  • Copernicus (crater)
  • Gagarin (crater)
  • Szilárd (crater)
  • Zsigmondy (crater)
  • Highland region on the Moon’s other side
  • Bolyai (crater)
  • Eötvös (crater)
  • Pasteur (crater)
  • Earth
  • Moon
  • the orbit of the Moon
  • orbital period: 27.3 days
  • apogee: 405,696 km
  • perigee: 363,104 km

Section of Earth

  • atmosphere - The outermost shell of the Earth, it is a composition of gases, covering the other layers without gaps.
  • biosphere - The system containing all living beings within the lithosphere, lower atmosphere and hydrosphere.
  • crust - The outermost shell of Earth, it has the smallest mass and it is composed of solid rock. Its average thickness is 30 km, the structure and thickness of the oceanic and the continental crust is different.
  • outer mantle - A 2,800 km thick layer of Earth, located between the crust and the core. The outer mantle is composed of a layer of solid rock, and plastic, molten rock underneath (soft mantle), the inner mantle is solid rock.
  • inner mantle - A 2,800 km thick layer of Earth, located between the crust and the core. The outer mantle is composed of a layer of solid rock, and plastic, molten rock underneath (soft mantle), the inner mantle is solid rock.
  • outer core - The innermost, hot and very dense part of the Earth, 7,000 km in diameter, composed of iron and nickel. It is divided into two parts, a molten outer core and a solid inner core.
  • inner core - The innermost, hot and very dense part of the Earth, of 7,000 km diameter, composed of iron and nickel. It is divided into two parts, a molten outer core and a solid inner core.

Section of the Moon

  • crust - It is 19 km thick on the side facing the Earth and 50-60 km thick on the other side. Lunar maria (seas) are made up of basalt, while the highlands are made up of impact breccia rock.
  • mantle - It is divided into two parts: the outer and the inner mantle. The outer mantle is solid, the inner mantle is partly molten. The mantle is 1,200 km thick, it consists mainly of oxygen, silicates, magnesium, iron, calcium and aluminium.
  • core - It is 450-500 km in diameter, the outer core is about 300-350 km thick and consists of molten rock, while the inner core (150-160 km in diameter) consists of iron and sulphur.

Orbit of the Earth

  • Earth
  • Sun
  • the orbit of the Earth
  • orbital period: 365.25 days
  • average distance from the Sun: 149,600,000 km

Animation

  • Sun
  • Mercury
  • Venus
  • Earth
  • Mars
  • Jupiter
  • Saturn
  • Uranus
  • Neptune
  • axis of rotation
  • line perpendicular to the orbital plane
  • orbital plane of the Earth
  • orbit of the Earth
  • N
  • S
  • 23.5°
  • Montes Alpes
  • Sea of Showers
  • Sea of Cold
  • Sea of Serenity
  • Sea of Tranquility
  • Sea of Fertility
  • Sea of Crisis
  • Sea of Nectar
  • Sea of Clouds
  • Sea of Moisture
  • Sea of Cleverness
  • Eastern Sea
  • Sea of William Henry Smyth
  • Ocean of Storms
  • Montes Carpatus
  • Montes Jura
  • Montes Caucasus
  • Montes Apenninus
  • Montes Taurus
  • Montes Pyrenaeus
  • Montes Cordillera
  • Plato (crater)
  • Copernicus (crater)
  • Gagarin (crater)
  • Szilárd (crater)
  • Zsigmondy (crater)
  • Highland region on the Moon’s other side
  • Bolyai (crater)
  • Eötvös (crater)
  • Pasteur (crater)
  • Earth
  • the orbit of the Moon
  • orbital period: 27.3 days
  • apogee: 405,696 km
  • perigee: 363,104 km
  • atmosphere - The outermost shell of the Earth, it is a composition of gases, covering the other layers without gaps.
  • biosphere - The system containing all living beings within the lithosphere, lower atmosphere and hydrosphere.
  • crust - The outermost shell of Earth, it has the smallest mass and it is composed of solid rock. Its average thickness is 30 km, the structure and thickness of the oceanic and the continental crust is different.
  • outer mantle - A 2,800 km thick layer of Earth, located between the crust and the core. The outer mantle is composed of a layer of solid rock, and plastic, molten rock underneath (soft mantle), the inner mantle is solid rock.
  • inner mantle - A 2,800 km thick layer of Earth, located between the crust and the core. The outer mantle is composed of a layer of solid rock, and plastic, molten rock underneath (soft mantle), the inner mantle is solid rock.
  • outer core - The innermost, hot and very dense part of the Earth, 7,000 km in diameter, composed of iron and nickel. It is divided into two parts, a molten outer core and a solid inner core.
  • inner core - The innermost, hot and very dense part of the Earth, of 7,000 km diameter, composed of iron and nickel. It is divided into two parts, a molten outer core and a solid inner core.
  • crust - It is 19 km thick on the side facing the Earth and 50-60 km thick on the other side. Lunar maria (seas) are made up of basalt, while the highlands are made up of impact breccia rock.
  • mantle - It is divided into two parts: the outer and the inner mantle. The outer mantle is solid, the inner mantle is partly molten. The mantle is 1,200 km thick, it consists mainly of oxygen, silicates, magnesium, iron, calcium and aluminium.
  • core - It is 450-500 km in diameter, the outer core is about 300-350 km thick and consists of molten rock, while the inner core (150-160 km in diameter) consists of iron and sulphur.
  • Earth
  • Sun
  • the orbit of the Earth
  • orbital period: 365.25 days
  • average distance from the Sun: 149,600,000 km

Narration

The Earth is the third planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fifth largest planet. The Earth is a terrestrial planet with the largest diameter, mass and density. The Earth is the only known planet in the Universe where life exists. According to current theories, the Earth had formed 4.57 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within one billion years.

While the Earth orbits around the Sun once, it rotates around its axis about 365.25 times. This time period is one year. The orbital velocity of the Earth is 30 km/s.

The tilt of the Earth’s axis is 23.5°. As a result, within one year the angle of incidence of sunlight changes at the same location, and this is the reason why seasons change. Our planet rotates (relative to the Sun) once every 24 hours. Due to the centrifugal force caused by the rotation, the planet is somewhat flattened.

The Earth’s only natural satellite is the Moon, which formed about 4.53 billion years ago. The Moon’s gravity creates tides, which keep the axis of rotation of the Earth at an almost constant angle and slow down the planet’s rotation slightly (the length of one day increases by 0.002 seconds every 100 years).

The atmosphere of the Earth is made up mainly of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). Other important components are water vapour, argon and carbon dioxide. At surface level, the average pressure is 1,013 millibars – this pressure is called one atmosphere. The atmosphere protects us from ultraviolet radiation and a multitude of meteors. The magnetic field of the Earth protects living organisms from cosmic radiation.

As a result of the greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature is around 15 °C (without this effect it would be -15 °C).

The Earth´s terrain varies greatly from place to place. About 71% of the surface is covered by water; the remaining 29% is covered by land mass. The underwater part of the crust is just as diverse as the land’s surface with alternating mountains, mountain chains, ditches and plains. The surface of our planet is in constant flux, due to volcanic activity, plate tectonics and erosion.

The Moon was formed not long after the formation of the planets, as a result of the collision of the young Earth and another ancient planet of about the size of Mars. During the collision, a large amount of material was ejected from the Earth’s mantle, which started to orbit the Earth, forming a disc. The material of the disc soon collected into a spherical shape due to gravity, and the Moon was formed. At that time, it was about 20 times closer to the Earth than it is today. The Moon’s diameter is about one-fourth of the Earth’s; it is an extremely large moon in the inner solar system. Compared to its mother planet, the Moon is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System.

While orbiting the Sun, the Earth and the Moon orbit their common centre of mass (located below the surface of the Earth). The Moon is in synchronous rotation around the Earth: its axial rotation and orbital period are the same; therefore, we always see the same side. Its orbital period is 27.32 days, while the lunar phase period (from full moon until the next full moon) is 29.53 days.

The Moon has very important effects on the Earth. Without the Moon, many things would have happened differently. The Moon has had a significant influence on evolution as well: tides played a role in drawing life onto dry land from water; our natural satellite also stabilised the Earth’s axial tilt, creating the conditions for the climate to stay relatively constant. The major effect of tides on the Earth is the slowing of our planet’s rotation and therefore a gradual increase in the length of the days. 400 million years ago, one year lasted about 400 days and the length of one day was only 21.8 hours. The high tides caused by the Moon´s gravity have an effect on the Moon as well; as a result, the Moon is slowly moving away from the Earth: its orbit is expanding by 4 cm every year.

Within the Apollo programme, the first humans to step onto the surface of the Moon were Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin on 21 July 1969. Altogether, twelve Americans have been to the Moon on six missions – the last one in December 1972. There has been no other lunar expedition since then, due to the high cost. Currently, several satellites are orbiting the Moon and analysing its surface. Ice has been found at the bottom of the polar craters (which are not reached by sunlight).

Related items

Formation of the Earth and Moon

This animation demonstrates how the Earth and the Moon were formed.

Structure of the Earth (intermediate)

The Earth is composed of several spherical layers.

The life-cycle of the Solar System

The formation of the Sun and the planets started with the contraction of a dust cloud about 4.5 billion years ago.

Topography of the Earth

The animation presents the largest mountains, plains, rivers, lakes and deserts of the Earth.

Continental drift on a geological timescale

The Earth's continents have been in constant motion during the history of the planet.

Globe

The Globe in various three-dimensional views.

Our astronomical neighbourhood

A demonstration of nearby planets, stars and galaxies.

Planets, sizes

The inner planets of the Solar System are terrestrial planets while the outer planets are gas giants.

Seafloor map

The boundaries of tectonic plates can be seen on the seafloor.

Seas and bays

This animation demonstrates the most important seas and bays.

The Moon

The Moon is the Earth's only natural satellite

Climate zones

The Earth is divided into geographical and climatic zones, which result in the zonation of vegetation.

Continents and oceans

Dry land on the surface of Earth is divided into continents which are separated by oceans.

Geographic coordinate system

The geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be exactly specified.

Geographic coordinate system (basic)

The system of circles of latitude and longitude on the globe enable every location on the Earth to be exactly specified.

Interesting astronomy facts

This animation presents some interesting facts in the field of astronomy.

Interesting geography facts – Physical geography

This animation presents some interesting facts in physical geography.

Kepler´s laws of planetary motion

The three important laws describing planetary motion were formulated by Johannes Kepler.

Milky Way

The diameter of our galaxy is about 100,000 light years; it contains more than 100 billion stars, one of which is our Sun.

Structure of Earth (elementary)

The Earth is composed of several spherical layers.

The Earth’s magnetic field

The Earth’s magnetic North and South poles are located near the geographic North and South poles.

The Solar System; planetary orbits

The orbits of the 8 planets in our Solar System are elliptical.

The Sun

The diameter of the Sun is about 109 times that of the Earth. Most of its mass consists of hydrogen.

The Sun's path above the major circles of latitude

The apparent movement of the Sun is caused by the Earth's rotation around its axis.

Volcanic activity

This animation demonstrates different types of volcanic eruptions

Altitudinal zonation

In mountainous areas the climate, soil properties, the flora and fauna change depending on elevation.

Earthquake

An earthquake is one of the most devastating natural phenomena.

Interesting geography facts – Social geography

This animation presents some interesting facts in social geography.

Jupiter

Jupiter is the largest planet of the Solar System, it has two and a half times the mass of all the other planets combined.

Mars

Possible traces of water and life are sought on Mars.

Mercury

Mercury is innermost and smallest planet of the Solar System.

Neptune

Neptune is the outermost planet of the Solar System, the smallest of the giant planets

Pluto - Charon system

The largest satellite of Pluto is Charon.

Saturn

Saturn is the second largest planet in the Solar System, easily recognisable by its rings.

The Cassini-Huygens Mission (1997-2017)

The Cassini spacecraft was exploring Saturn and its moons for nearly 20 years.

Uranus

Uranus is the 7th planet from the Sun, a gas giant.

Venus

Venus is the 2nd planet from the Sun, the brightest object on the night sky (after the Moon).

Mars Exploration Program

Space probes and Mars rovers examine the structure of Mars and possible traces of life.

Moon landing: 20 July 1969

Neil Armstrong, one of the crew members of Apollo 11 was the first man to set foot on the Moon.

The Dawn mission

Studying Ceres and Vesta will help us learn more about the early history of the Solar System and how rocky planets are formed.

The New Horizons mission

The New Horizons space probe was launched in 2006, with the objective to study Pluto and the Kuiper Belt.

Added to your cart.