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Diesel engine

Diesel engine

The German engineer Rudolf Diesel patented the diesel engine in 1893.

Physics

Keywords

diesel engine, engine, internal combustion engine, cylinders, diesel, cardan, axis, diesel oil, crankshaft, piston, valve, injection, compression, intake, explosion, automobile, truck, car, bus, bar, power stroke, self-ignition, environmental pollution, environmental damage, air pollution, heat engine, work, cycle, automobile factory, car manufacturing, thermodynamics, physics

Related items

Scenes

Engine

  • engine block - The metal block housing the working parts of the engine.
  • gearbox - It adjusts the gear ratio between the engine and the drive shaft. It changes the number of rotations of the driven wheels during one turn of the crankshaft. In low gear the output of the engine is high but the speed is low, in high gear the car goes faster and uses less fuel but it accelerates slower.
  • air filter - Air flows into the combustion chamber of the engine, containing oxygen necessary for the combustion process to take place. The air is cleaned by this part.
  • intake manifold - The air, necessary for combustion to take place, flows into the cylinder through this opening.
  • exhaust manifold - Exhaust gases are expelled through it.
  • timing belt - It transmits the rotation of the crankshaft to the camshafts.
  • fuel injection

Operation

  • intake port - Air flows into the combustion chamber - the part of the cylinder above the piston - through this opening.
  • fuel injection - Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than petrol, therefore compressed hot air ignites it without an ignition spark. The explosion pushes the piston down.
  • exhaust port - Exhaust gases are expelled through this pipe. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.
  • intake valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 1st stroke, when the piston moving downwards creates a decrease in pressure inside the cylinder, sucking in the air.
  • exhaust valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 4th stroke, when the piston moving upwards expels the exhaust gases.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft. The explosion of the fuel forces it to move downwards. Then the inertia of the rotated crankshaft causes it to move upwards, downwards then upwards again. Then follows another ignition.
  • cylinder - The explosion forces the piston to move downwards inside the cylinder.
  • connecting rod
  • crankshaft - The alternating motion of the piston rotates the crankshaft.

Stroke 1

  • intake port - Air flows into the combustion chamber - the part of the cylinder above the piston - through this opening.
  • fuel injection - Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than petrol, therefore compressed hot air ignites it without an ignition spark. The explosion pushes the piston down.
  • exhaust port - Exhaust gases are expelled through this pipe. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.
  • intake valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 1st stroke, when the piston moving downwards creates a decrease in pressure inside the cylinder, sucking in the air.
  • exhaust valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 4th stroke, when the piston moving upwards expels the exhaust gases.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft. The explosion of the fuel forces it to move downwards. Then the inertia of the rotated crankshaft causes it to move upwards, downwards then upwards again. Then follows another ignition.
  • cylinder - The explosion forces the piston to move downwards inside the cylinder.
  • connecting rod
  • crankshaft - The alternating motion of the piston rotates the crankshaft.

Stroke 2

  • intake port - Air flows into the combustion chamber - the part of the cylinder above the piston - through this opening.
  • fuel injection - Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than petrol, therefore compressed hot air ignites it without an ignition spark. The explosion pushes the piston down.
  • exhaust port - Exhaust gases are expelled through this pipe. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.
  • intake valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 1st stroke, when the piston moving downwards creates a decrease in pressure inside the cylinder, sucking in the air.
  • exhaust valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 4th stroke, when the piston moving upwards expels the exhaust gases.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft. The explosion of the fuel forces it to move downwards. Then the inertia of the rotated crankshaft causes it to move upwards, downwards then upwards again. Then follows another ignition.
  • cylinder - The explosion forces the piston to move downwards inside the cylinder.
  • connecting rod
  • crankshaft - The alternating motion of the piston rotates the crankshaft.

Stroke 3

  • intake port - Air flows into the combustion chamber - the part of the cylinder above the piston - through this opening.
  • fuel injection - Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than petrol, therefore compressed hot air ignites it without an ignition spark. The explosion pushes the piston down.
  • exhaust port - Exhaust gases are expelled through this pipe. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.
  • intake valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 1st stroke, when the piston moving downwards creates a decrease in pressure inside the cylinder, sucking in the air.
  • exhaust valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 4th stroke, when the piston moving upwards expels the exhaust gases.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft. The explosion of the fuel forces it to move downwards. Then the inertia of the rotated crankshaft causes it to move upwards, downwards then upwards again. Then follows another ignition.
  • cylinder - The explosion forces the piston to move downwards inside the cylinder.
  • connecting rod
  • crankshaft - The alternating motion of the piston rotates the crankshaft.

Stroke 4

  • intake port - Air flows into the combustion chamber - the part of the cylinder above the piston - through this opening.
  • fuel injection - Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than petrol, therefore compressed hot air ignites it without an ignition spark. The explosion pushes the piston down.
  • exhaust port - Exhaust gases are expelled through this pipe. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.
  • intake valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 1st stroke, when the piston moving downwards creates a decrease in pressure inside the cylinder, sucking in the air.
  • exhaust valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 4th stroke, when the piston moving upwards expels the exhaust gases.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft. The explosion of the fuel forces it to move downwards. Then the inertia of the rotated crankshaft causes it to move upwards, downwards then upwards again. Then follows another ignition.
  • cylinder - The explosion forces the piston to move downwards inside the cylinder.
  • connecting rod
  • crankshaft - The alternating motion of the piston rotates the crankshaft.

Internal construction

  • radiator - During the operation of the engine the cooling water heats up then releases the heat into the environment.
  • engine
  • gearbox - It adjusts the gear ratio between the engine and the drive shaft. It changes the number of rotations of the driven wheels during one turn of the crankshaft. In low gear, the output of the engine is high but the speed is low, while in high gear, the car goes faster and uses less fuel but it accelerates slower.
  • drive shaft - It transmits the rotating motion of the crankshaft to the driven wheels.
  • fuel tank - The fuel used in the diesel engine is diesel oil. It has a lower flash point then petrol, therefore it explodes without an ignition spark, due to the heat of hot air.
  • differential gear - During cornering it allows the driven wheels to roll at different speed.
  • driven shaft - The rotation of the crankshaft is transmitted to the driven shaft by the drive shaft.
  • exhaust pipe - Exhaust gases are expelled through this port. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.

Cylinders

  • crankshaft - It is driven by the pistons. Its rotation is transmitted to the driven shaft by the drive shaft, and to the camshaft by the timing belt, which operate the valves.
  • camshaft - Its rotation ensures the rhythmical operation of the valves, and it is controlled by the crankshaft through the timing belt.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft.
  • valves - They coordinate the intake of air, and the outflow of exhaust gases. They are operated by the crankshaft through the timing belt.

Animation

  • engine
  • gearbox - It adjusts the gear ratio between the engine and the drive shaft. It changes the number of rotations of the driven wheels during one turn of the crankshaft. In low gear, the output of the engine is high but the speed is low, while in high gear, the car goes faster and uses less fuel but it accelerates slower.
  • drive shaft - It transmits the rotating motion of the crankshaft to the driven wheels.
  • crankshaft - It is driven by the pistons. Its rotation is transmitted to the driven shaft by the drive shaft, and to the camshaft by the timing belt, which operate the valves.
  • camshaft - Its rotation ensures the rhythmical operation of the valves, and it is controlled by the crankshaft through the timing belt.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft.
  • valves - They coordinate the intake of air, and the outflow of exhaust gases. They are operated by the crankshaft through the timing belt.
  • intake port - Air flows into the combustion chamber - the part of the cylinder above the piston - through this opening.
  • fuel injection - Diesel fuel has a higher flash point than petrol, therefore compressed hot air ignites it without an ignition spark. The explosion pushes the piston down.
  • exhaust port - Exhaust gases are expelled through this pipe. Combustion is less perfect in diesel engines than in petrol engines, therefore they emit more harmful materials.
  • intake valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 1st stroke, when the piston moving downwards creates a decrease in pressure inside the cylinder, sucking in the air.
  • exhaust valve - Its opening and closing is coordinated by the movement of the piston. It opens in the 4th stroke, when the piston moving upwards expels the exhaust gases.
  • piston - Its alternating motion rotates the crankshaft. The explosion of the fuel forces it to move downwards. Then the inertia of the rotated crankshaft causes it to move upwards, downwards then upwards again. Then follows another ignition.
  • cylinder - The explosion forces the piston to move downwards inside the cylinder.
  • connecting rod
  • crankshaft - The alternating motion of the piston rotates the crankshaft.

Narration

We know that cars are powered by engines, but how do they work exactly? The rotating motion of an engine’s crankshaft is transmitted to the wheels by the drive shaft. The gearbox changes the number of rotations of the driven wheels during one turn of the crankshaft. In low gear, the output of the engine is high but the speed is low; in high gear, the car is faster and uses less fuel but accelerates more slowly.

Besides four-stroke engines, the most common types of engine in cars are diesel engines, which are powered by diesel oil rather than petrol. The alternating vertical motion of the pistons in the diesel engine is converted into the rotation of the crankshaft. The crankshaft drives the drive shaft and the camshaft through the timing belt. The camshaft operates the valves, which ensure the intake of air and the expulsion of exhaust gases through a coordinated, rhythmic opening and closing.

The first stroke is the intake. The piston moves downwards, decreasing the pressure in the cylinder. The intake valve opens, and air flows into the cylinder.

The second stroke is the compression: both the intake and the exhaust valves are closed then. The momentum of the crankshaft and the counterweight causes the piston to move upwards, compressing the air and thereby increasing its temperature.

The third stroke is the power stroke. The diesel oil injected into the compressed and heated air ignites. Unlike petrol engines, diesel engines do not need spark plugs to ignite the fuel. The explosion pushes the piston down.

The fourth stroke is the exhaust stroke. The piston moves upwards, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust gases are expelled.

As you can see, the linear motion of the piston is converted into the rotating motion of the crankshaft. The energy necessary to move the piston is supplied by the combustion of the diesel oil.

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