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The primary source of energy for living cells.
D-glucose, dextrose, carbohydrate, sugar, monosaccharide, simple sugar, stereoisomer, aldose, aldohexose, glycoside, photosynthesis, silver mirror test, constitution, conformation, axial, equatorial, energy, starch, organic chemistry, chemistry
Molar mass: 180.16 g/mol
Melting point: 146 °C
When we dissolve crystalline glucose in water, a small amount (less than 1%) of the cyclic molecules open up and transform into open-chain molecules. An aqueous solution of glucose contains a balanced mixture of three glucose isomers: it contains approximately 63% beta-D-glucose, 37% alpha-D-glucose and 0.003% open-chain D-glucose.
These open-chain forms have a formyl group, so glucose produces a positive result on Tollens’ test. It falls under the group of aldohexoses. The ’D’ means that the chiral centre farther from the oxo group has the same configuration as in D-glyceraldehyde.
Glucose is one of the most important carbohydrates, the energy source of life on Earth. It is formed during photosynthesis. During its biological breakdown a huge amount of energy is released. The concentration of D-glucose in the human blood is called blood sugar concentration or blood-glucose level.
It is produced through the acidic hydrolysis of starch.
Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.
One of the stereoisomers of D-glucose.
The animation demonstrates the process of ring closure of open-chain glucose into alpha- and beta-D-glucose.
Fructose is the sweetest of the simple carbohydrates.
A type of sugar found in mammalian milk.
A disaccharide formed by the joining of two alpha-D-glucose molecules.
A helical molecule consisting of alpha-D-glucose units. It is one of the basic components of starch.
Cellobiose is the basic structural unit of cellulose.
The building material of the cell walls and fibres of plants.
The sweetest type of sugar.
A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.
The liver is a vital organ that plays an important role in the digestion of fats, detoxification and metabolism.
Wines of the Tokaj wine-growing region are well known worldwide.
An exercise about the groups and structure of mono-, di- and polysaccharides.