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D-glucose (dextrose) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

D-glucose (dextrose) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

The primary source of energy for living cells.

Chemistry

Keywords

D-glucose, dextrose, carbohydrate, sugar, monosaccharide, simple sugar, stereoisomer, aldose, aldohexose, glycoside, photosynthesis, silver mirror test, constitution, conformation, axial, equatorial, energy, starch, organic chemistry, chemistry

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Scenes

Ball-and-stick

D-glucose C₆H₁₂O₆

Information

Molar mass: 180.16 g/mol

Melting point: 146 °C

Properties

When we dissolve crystalline glucose in water, a small amount (less than 1%) of the cyclic molecules open up and transform into open-chain molecules. An aqueous solution of glucose contains a balanced mixture of three glucose isomers: it contains approximately 63% beta-D-glucose, 37% alpha-D-glucose and 0.003% open-chain D-glucose.

These open-chain forms have a formyl group, so glucose produces a positive result on Tollens’ test. It falls under the group of aldohexoses. The ’D’ means that the chiral centre farther from the oxo group has the same configuration as in D-glyceraldehyde.

Occurrence and production

Glucose is one of the most important carbohydrates, the energy source of life on Earth. It is formed during photosynthesis. During its biological breakdown a huge amount of energy is released. The concentration of D-glucose in the human blood is called blood sugar concentration or blood-glucose level.

It is produced through the acidic hydrolysis of starch.

Space-filling

Narration

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Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.

Beta-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

One of the stereoisomers of D-glucose.

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The animation demonstrates the process of ring closure of open-chain glucose into alpha- and beta-D-glucose.

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A type of sugar found in mammalian milk.

Maltose (malt sugar) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A disaccharide formed by the joining of two alpha-D-glucose molecules.

Amylose ((C₆H₁₀O₅)n)

A helical molecule consisting of alpha-D-glucose units. It is one of the basic components of starch.

Cellobiose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

Cellobiose is the basic structural unit of cellulose.

Cellulose (C₆H₁₀O₅)n

The building material of the cell walls and fibres of plants.

Saccharose (sucrose) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.

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