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D-glucose (dextrose) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

D-glucose (dextrose) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

The primary source of energy for living cells.



D-glucose, dextrose, carbohydrate, sugar, monosaccharide, simple sugar, stereoisomer, aldose, aldohexose, glycoside, photosynthesis, silver mirror test, constitution, conformation, axial, equatorial, energy, starch, organic chemistry, chemistry

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D-glucose C₆H₁₂O₆


Molar mass: 180.16 g/mol

Melting point: 146 °C


When we dissolve crystalline glucose in water, a small amount (less than 1%) of the cyclic molecules open up and transform into open-chain molecules. An aqueous solution of glucose contains a balanced mixture of three glucose isomers: it contains approximately 63% beta-D-glucose, 37% alpha-D-glucose and 0.003% open-chain D-glucose.

These open-chain forms have a formyl group, so glucose produces a positive result on Tollens’ test. It falls under the group of aldohexoses. The ’D’ means that the chiral centre farther from the oxo group has the same configuration as in D-glyceraldehyde.

Occurrence and production

Glucose is one of the most important carbohydrates, the energy source of life on Earth. It is formed during photosynthesis. During its biological breakdown a huge amount of energy is released. The concentration of D-glucose in the human blood is called blood sugar concentration or blood-glucose level.

It is produced through the acidic hydrolysis of starch.



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Alpha-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Alpha-D-glucose is one of the stereoisomers of glucoses, specifically the D-glucoses.

Beta-D-glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)

One of the stereoisomers of D-glucose.

Ring closure of glucose

The animation demonstrates the process of ring closure of open-chain glucose into alpha- and beta-D-glucose.

Beta-D-fructose (fruit sugar) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

Fructose is the sweetest of the simple carbohydrates.

Lactose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A type of sugar found in mammalian milk.

Maltose (malt sugar) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A disaccharide formed by the joining of two alpha-D-glucose molecules.

Amylose ((C₆H₁₀O₅)n)

A helical molecule consisting of alpha-D-glucose units. It is one of the basic components of starch.

Cellobiose (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

Cellobiose is the basic structural unit of cellulose.

Cellulose (C₆H₁₀O₅)n

The building material of the cell walls and fibres of plants.

Saccharose (sucrose) (C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁)

A white, water-soluble, sweet compound known as sugar.

The anatomy and functions of the liver

The liver is a vital organ that plays an important role in the digestion of fats, detoxification and metabolism.

Wine region

Wines of the Tokaj wine-growing region are well known worldwide.

Molecule exercise VI (Carbohydrates)

An exercise about the groups and structure of mono-, di- and polysaccharides.

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