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Chlorine (Cl₂)

Chlorine (Cl₂)

A yellow-green toxic gas with a strong odour, one of the halogens.

Chemistry

Keywords

chlorine, homonuclear molecule, halogen, oxidant, chlorine water, chlorides, hydrochloric acid, table salt, disinfection, toxic, Ignaz Semmelweis, pulmonary oedema, nonpolar, chloride ion, inorganic chemistry, chemistry

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Comparison of halogens

Halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.

Hydrogen chloride (HCl)

A colourless gas with a pungent odour, its solution in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Bromine (Br₂)

One of the halogens, it may cause skin irritation.

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)

Colourless, toxic liquid with a sweet odour.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

Dissolution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water

The solution of hydrogen chloride in water is called hydrochloric acid.

Fluorine (F₂)

The lightest halogen, a pale yellow-green, toxic gas, extremely reactive. Its best known compound is teflon.

Formation of hydrogen molecules

Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.

Hypochlorite ion (OCl⁻)

Hypochlorite ions are formed when water is disinfected with chlorine.

Iodine (I₂)

A solid, grey substance which sublimates when heated. Its solution in alcohol is called tincture of iodine, it is a disinfectant.

Iodine crystal

A solid, grey substance which sublimates when heated. Its solution in alcohol is called ´tincture of iodine´, it is a disinfectant.

Oxygen (O₂) (intermediate)

A colourless, odourless gas, an important component of the atmosphere, indispensable to sustain terrestrial life.

Reaction of hydrogen with oxygen

Knallgas is the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. It will explode when ignited.

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

Common salt (or table salt) is one of the most important sodium compounds, indispensable for living organisms.

Trichloromethane, chloroform (CHCl₃)

Also known as chloroform, used as a solvent in laboratories, earlier as an anaesthetic.

Beryllium dichloride (BeCl₂)

Used in the production of beryllium and as a catalyst.

Bromofluorochloromethane (CHClBrF)

The molecule has two enantiomers: stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other and are not superimposable.

Phosphorus trichloride (PCl₃)

Colourless liquid that gives off smoke in moist air.

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