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Bacteria (spheres, rods, spirals)

Bacteria (spheres, rods, spirals)

Bacteria occur in a wide range of shapes, including spheres, rods and spirals.

Biology

Keywords

bacterium, prokaryote, unicellular, pathogen, antibiotic, microorganism, disease, infection, inflammation, E. coli, tetanus, plague, cholera, gonococcal infection, meningitis, gonorrhoea, pneumonia, Salmonella, Legionnaires' disease, Lyme disease, syphilis, stick, spiral, spherical, monococcus, vibrio, pus, staphylococcus, streptococcus, bacillus, Spirillum, coccus, cell, cell wall, Gram positive, Gram staining, tok, cilium, Pasteur, Gram negative, morphology, bacteriology, Microbiology, biology

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Questions

  • Which bacterium is NOT spherical?
  • Which shape is not typical for bacteria?
  • What shape is the pathogen of plague?
  • What shape is the pathogen of tetanus?
  • Which disease is caused by bacteria?
  • Which disease is caused by bacteria?
  • Which disease is caused by bacteria?
  • Which is NOT a bacterial disease?
  • Which is NOT a bacterial disease?
  • Which is NOT a bacterial disease?
  • Which part of Gram-positive bacteria retains the stain in the Gram stain test?
  • Which substance is the main constituent of bacterial cell walls?
  • Which bacteria are widely used in food production?
  • Is it true that nitrogen-fixing bacteria often cause an inflammation when they enter the human body?
  • Is it tue that nitrogen-fixing bacteria live on the roots of legumes?
  • Is it true that the lure of anglerfish contains bacteria that emit light?
  • Is it true that E. coli bacteria are found in the human bowel system?
  • Is it true that the pathogen of tetanus produces a toxin which causes harmless muscle spasms?
  • Is it true that bacteria are prokaryotes?
  • Is it true that bacteria are single-celled organisms?

Scenes

Sphere

  • monococcus - Simple, spherical bacteria.
  • diplococcus - E.g.: Neisseria gonorrheae, the bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, or Meningococcus, a bacterium that can cause meningitis.
  • streptococcus - This group includes many bacteria that cause inflammation, for example, Streptococcus pneumoniae, which can cause pneumonia, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract or meningitis
  • staphylococcus - These bacteria often cause pus-forming infections. For example, Staphylococcus aureus often causes wound infections.

Rod

  • bacillus - E.g.: Eschericia coli, a bacterium commonly found in the lower intestines, or lactobacilli, which are widely used in the food industry. Certain bacilli cause infections, such as the pathogens of bubonic plague, Legionnaires´ disease, tetanus or salmonellosis.
  • vibrio - E.g.: Vibrio cholerae, the pathogen of cholera, or photobacteria, bacteria that occur in the lure of anglerfishes.

Spiral

  • spirillum - E.g.: Spirillum minus, the pathogen of rat-bite fever, an inflammation that develops in humans after rodent bites.
  • spirochaeta - E.g.: Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen of Lyme disease; the pathogens of leptospirosis and syphilis (an STD).

Structure

  • capsule - An outer shell that protects the cell. It is characteristic of pathogenic bacteria.
  • cell wall - A tough and rigid structure found in most bacteria. It is made of polysaccharides and proteins. It provides the cells with structural support and protection.
  • cell membrane - A double lipid layer.
  • DNA - Bacterial DNA is circular. It is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane, thus bacteria are prokaryotic cells.
  • cytoplasm
  • flagellum - They are used for locomotion by the bacterium. Not all bacteria have them.
  • plasmid - A small DNA molecule within cells that is physically separated from the chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. It is most commonly found in bacteria as circular DNA molecules.

Cell wall

  • Gram positive
  • polysaccharide - The cell wall consists of a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan (also known as murein). During Gram staining, the dye interacts with this layer.
  • cell membrane
  • Gram negative
  • cell membrane
  • polysaccharide - The cell wall consists of a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan (also known as murein).
  • outer lipid membrane - During Gram staining, this layer prevents the stain from interacting with the polysaccharide layer. Thus the cell wall cannot be stained well.

Animation

  • capsule - An outer shell that protects the cell. It is characteristic of pathogenic bacteria.
  • cell wall - A tough and rigid structure found in most bacteria. It is made of polysaccharides and proteins. It provides the cells with structural support and protection.
  • cell membrane - A double lipid layer.
  • DNA - Bacterial DNA is circular. It is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane, thus bacteria are prokaryotic cells.
  • cytoplasm
  • flagellum - They are used for locomotion by the bacterium. Not all bacteria have them.
  • plasmid - A small DNA molecule within cells that is physically separated from the chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. It is most commonly found in bacteria as circular DNA molecules.
  • Gram positive
  • polysaccharide - The cell wall consists of a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan (also known as murein). During Gram staining, the dye interacts with this layer.
  • cell membrane
  • Gram negative
  • cell membrane
  • polysaccharide - The cell wall consists of a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan (also known as murein).
  • outer lipid membrane - During Gram staining, this layer prevents the stain from interacting with the polysaccharide layer. Thus the cell wall cannot be stained well.
  • monococcus - Simple, spherical bacteria.
  • diplococcus - E.g.: Neisseria gonorrheae, the bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, or Meningococcus, a bacterium that can cause meningitis.
  • streptococcus - This group includes many bacteria that cause inflammation, for example, Streptococcus pneumoniae, which can cause pneumonia, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract or meningitis
  • staphylococcus - These bacteria often cause pus-forming infections. For example, Staphylococcus aureus often causes wound infections.
  • bacillus - E.g.: Eschericia coli, a bacterium commonly found in the lower intestines, or lactobacilli, which are widely used in the food industry. Certain bacilli cause infections, such as the pathogens of bubonic plague, Legionnaires´ disease, tetanus or salmonellosis.
  • vibrio - E.g.: Vibrio cholerae, the pathogen of cholera, or photobacteria, bacteria that occur in the lure of anglerfishes.
  • spirillum - E.g.: Spirillum minus, the pathogen of rat-bite fever, an inflammation that develops in humans after rodent bites.
  • spirochaeta - E.g.: Borrelia burgdorferi, the pathogen of Lyme disease; the pathogens of leptospirosis and syphilis (an STD).

Narration

Bacteria are single-celled, prokaryotic microorganisms. They can be found everywhere on the planet; the ancestors of modern bacteria appeared on Earth about 3.5 billion years ago.

The cytoplasm forms the main mass of a bacterium cell. It contains the genetic material, that is, the ring-shaped DNA. Unlike in eukaryotes, proteins are not attached to the DNA in prokaryotes. The cytoplasm is enclosed in the cell membrane.

All bacteria have a cell wall. It is tough and rigid, and it is made from proteins and polysaccharides. It provides the cells with structural support and protection.

Outside the cell wall is the capsule, which is made mainly from polysaccharides. It protects the cell and is responsible for the diseases caused by some bacteria in the host organism.
Some bacteria are capable of active locomotion through the use of their flagella.

Bacteria have an exceptional ability to adapt and reproduce, and this is why they are extremely widespread. They are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. If they reproduce through binary fission, which is a form of asexual reproduction, it results in a large number of individual bacteria cells.
Bacteria occur in a wide range of shapes, including spheres, rods and spirals.

Spherical bacteria, which are called cocci, can occur as single cells, pairs, chains or clusters. Many bacteria that produce suppurative infections or pneumonia are spherical. Gonorrhea is also caused by cocci.

One group of rod-shaped bacteria are called bacilli. These can be harmless, such as the lactobacilli used in the food industry. Many bacilli cause diseases, like the pathogens of plague, tuberculosis, salmonellosis and tetanus. Escherichia coli, which is commonly found in the human intestinal system, is also a bacillus.

Syphilis, Lyme disease and leptospirosis are caused by spiral-shaped bacteria.

Gram staining is a method of differentiating bacteria into two groups, i.e. Gram negative and Gram positive. The basis of differentiation is that staining produces different results in the cell walls of different types of bacteria because of their different structure. The two types of bacteria react to antibiotics differently, so treating different bacterial infections requires different antibiotics.

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