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Caliphs, considered successors of the Prophet Muhammad, were the most important religious leaders of Islam.
The seminomadic lifestyle of the Bedouin adapted to the climatic and environmental conditions of the desert.
Dreaded Germanic warriors spreading out from Northern Europe towards the south also threatened the Roman Empire.
Its architectural solutions and ornamentation rank this mosque among the masterpieces of Islamic art.
Located in the Grand Mosque of Makkah, the Kaaba shrine is the most sacred site of Islam.
The prosperity of the eastern part of the Roman Empire started in the early 4th century, during the reign of Emperor Constantine.
Numerous legendary empires were built (and destroyed) in the course of history.
The round tower of the largest fort in the Arabian Peninsula had an ingenious defence system.
The wearer of the armour found at the archaeological dig of the Issyk Kurgan in Kazakhstan was named the 'Golden man'.
Slavic warriors were greatly respected throughout Europe in the Middle Ages.
The centre of the Indian mausoleum complex is a white marble tomb built by Shah Jahan for his beloved wife.
A medieval glider constructed by Abbas Ibn Firnas.
The medieval Arab inventor, Hassan Al Rammah designed the world's first operating torpedo.
The ingenius water pump designed by Al-Jazari is a great example of the creativity of Medieval Arab engineers.
One of the most important religious military orders, formed in the era of the Crusades.
Clothing reflects the lifestyle and culture of the given era and region.
The Ottoman army included janissaries (paid warriors) and sipahis (vassal knights).
The largest type of Arab sailboat, most commonly used as trading vessels in the Persian Gulf.