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Animal and plant cells, cellular organelles

Animal and plant cells, cellular organelles

Eukaryotic cells contain a number of organelles.

Biology

Keywords

cell, cell organelle, cellular organelles, eucaryotic, cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, Golgi apparatus, chloroplast, endoplasmic, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeleton, vacuole, DNA, thylakoid, plant cell wall, vesicle, granum, extracellular matrix, sclerocyte, chromatin, histone proteins, lipid membrane, nuclear membrane, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, RER, ribosome, organism, cytology, plant, animal, biology, _javasolt

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Questions

  • Which of the groups below are NOT Eukaryotes?
  • Which organelle is the cell's powerhouse?
  • Which one of the following organelles is NOT present in animal cells?
  • Which one of the following organelles is NOT present in animal cells?
  • Which one of the following organelles is NOT present in animal cells?
  • Which organelle is a complex, interconnected network of membrane vesicles in the cell and plays an important role in protein synthesis?
  • Which organelle is responsible for carrying out photosynthesis?
  • Where does the digestion of unwanted materials take place?
  • Which organelle contains chromatin?
  • Where do catabolic processes take place?
  • Is it true that cell membrane is a single-layer membrane consisting of starch molecules?
  • Is it true that chloroplasts are enclosed in a double membrane?
  • Is it true that the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes?
  • Is it true that prokaryote cells have nuclei?
  • Is it true that every animal cell is enclosed in a cell wall made of cellulose?
  • Is it true that the vacuole plays an important role in maintaining turgor pressure within the plant cell?
  • Is it true that the cytoskeleton ensures the positioning and the movement of organelles within the cell?
  • Is it true that mitochondria take part in the processes of anabolism?
  • Which substance forms the cell walls of plants?
  • What type of molecules form the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane?

Scenes

Cell

  • animal cell
  • plant cell
  • chloroplast
  • cell wall
  • vacuole
  • nucleus
  • mitochondrion
  • cell membrane
  • cytoplasm
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus

Animal cell

  • nucleus
  • mitochondrion
  • cell membrane
  • cytoplasm
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • vesicle
  • cytoskeleton

Plant cell

  • chloroplast
  • cell wall
  • vacuole
  • nucleus
  • mitochondrion
  • cell membrane
  • cytoplasm
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • vesicle
  • cytoskeleton

Cell membrane

  • phosphatide molecule
  • membrane protein

Nucleus

  • nucleolus
  • chromatin
  • nuclear membrane
  • pore

Nuclear membrane

  • pore-forming proteins
  • outer lipid membrane
  • inner lipid membrane

Endoplasmic reticulum

  • rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • ribosome
  • nuclear membrane

Golgi apparatus

  • cis face
  • trans face

Plastid

  • outer membrane
  • inner membrane
  • granum
  • thylakoid

Mitochondrion

  • outer membrane
  • inner membrane

Chromatin

  • protein skeleton
  • histone proteins
  • DNA

Narration

The two important types of eukaryotic cells are animal and plant cells.
Vascular plants are built up of organs, such as leaves. Organs consist of tissues, while tissues in turn consist of cells with similar structures and functions. This animation shows a mesophyll cell. These cells are typically found in leaves and carry out intensive photosynthesis.

Eumetazoans are animals that have organs and tissues. This group includes humans. This animation shows a human liver cell.

Typical plant and animal cells exhibit a number of similar features and a number of divergent ones. Both types of cells have nuclei, endoplasmic reticula, that is, a complex network of membrane vesicles, and Golgi apparatuses. They contain cytoskeletons and cytoplasm, which is enclosed by the cell membrane. The cell membrane in plant cells is enclosed in a cell wall, made of cellulose. Plant cells commonly contain both a vacuole (which is a bubble within the cell, filled with nuclear sap) and photosynthesising chloroplasts.

The nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear membrane. It contains the nucleolus, where ribosomes are produced. The content of the nucleus is made up mostly of chromatin.

Chromatin consists of DNA coiled onto histone proteins. DNA encodes proteins. Thus it is responsible for the properties of cells and the entire organism.

The nuclear membrane is a double lipid membrane. It contains pores, which are made up of pore-forming membrane proteins through which materials are transported between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.

The endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the outer layer of the nuclear membrane. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is nearer to the nucleus. Its surface contains ribosomes, which synthesise protein molecules in the order specified by the DNA, which is copied into messenger RNA molecules in the nucleus. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum plays an important role in lipid synthesis and detoxification: it breaks down certain harmful materials.

The proteins produced by the ribosomes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are processed and packed in the Golgi apparatus. It also plays an important role in determining the final destination of the protein.

The cell membrane is made up of phosphatide molecules. The head of a phosphatide molecule is polar, thus hydrophilic, while the tail is non-polar, thus hydrophobic. The hydrophobic parts turn towards each other and push out the water, forming a double layer. Within a layer the phosphatide molecules can freely move but they rarely leave the layer, therefore the lipid membrane is a two-dimensional liquid. Membrane proteins in the cell membrane may have several functions: some of them serve as channels, while others function as receptors, which bind signal molecules.

Chloroplasts are important organelles in plant cells; they carry out photosynthesis. They have a double membrane; the folds of the inner membrane form thylakoid discs. These discs are often stacked, forming grana.

Both plant and animal cells contain mitochondria. These are often considered the cells' power station: they produce a large amount of ATP by breaking down organic molecules. ATP is the molecule that carries out energy transfer in cells.

Living organisms are characterised by cellular organisation. Cells are the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing, and are often called the building blocks of life. Cells engage in biological processes but cell organelles themselves are not living things.

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