Altitudinal zonation

In mountainous areas the climate, soil properties, the flora and fauna change depending on elevation.

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Glaciation

The last Ice Age ended about 13 thousand years ago.

Natural gas and petroleum

Natural gas and petroleum are among the most important sources of energy and raw materials today.

Factors of warming

The duration of solar radiation, the angle of the Sun's rays and the surface albedo all have an...

Karst region (intermediate)

Karst formations include dolines and dripstones.

Aeolian landforms on coasts and steppes

Wind, as an external force, plays an important role in shaping coastal areas and steppes.

Faulting (basic)

Vertical forces can break up layers of rock into fault blocks, which then move vertically...

Waves

Waves play an important role in forming the coast.

Glacier (basic)

A glacier is a large body of ice that forms from snow, and is in constant, slow motion.

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