Altitudinal zonation

In mountainous areas the climate, soil properties, the flora and fauna change depending on elevation.

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The rise and drop of sea levels caused by the gravitational force of the Moon.

The water cycle (basic)

Water on Earth is in a continuous state of change. The water cycle includes processes...

The phosphorus cycle

The phosphorus cycle describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere,...


Within the lethal embrace of deserts, life can only flourish because of large springs....

Mediterranean climate

It is characterised by dry, hot summers and mild winters.

Folding (intermediate)

Lateral compressive forces cause rocks to form folds. This is how fold mountains are...


Short-lived but extremely powerful tornadoes can cause a great deal of damage

El Niño

A periodic climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean every five years.

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